Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4
Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Memories.
|Primary Memories||Secondary Memories|
|1. Primary Memories are volatile Memories i.e. temporary Memories.||Secondary Memories are non-volatile memories i.e Permanent Memories|
|2. Primary memories are costlier||Secondary memories are cheaper|
|3. The Primary memories accessing speed is high||The Secondary memories accessing speed is slow.|
|4. The contents of main memory are accessed directly by the CPU||The contents of secondary memory is accessed indirectly by the CPU.|
|5. Primary Memory is also called as Main Memory||Secondary Memory is also called as Auxiliary Memory.|
|6. Primary Memories are Limited.||Secondary Memories are unlimited.|
|7. Main memories are uses semiconductor technology.||Secondary Memories are uses Magnetic Technology.|
|8. The information storing procedure is very easy.||The information storing procedure is very complex.|
|9. Memory locations are identified with the help of its unique address.||Memory locations are identified with the help of side, track, sectors etc.|
|10. Main Memory has random access Property.||Secondary memories have sequential and random access property.|
|11. Examples: RAM and ROM||Examples: Magnetic Tape, Floppy Disk etc.|
Explain the features of MS-Windows.
Windows 10 is the most recent version of the Microsoft Windows operating system. There have been many different versions of Windows over the years, including Windows 8 (released in 2012), Windows 7 (2009), Windows Vista (2006), and Windows XP (2001). While older versions of Windows mainly ran on desktop and laptop computers, Windows 10 is also designed to run equally well on tablets.
An operating system manages all of the hardware and software on a computer. Without it, the computer would be useless.
Desktop: The desktop is a fundamental part of the default GUI (graphical user interface) in Windows. It is a space where you can organize applications, folders, and documents, which appear as icons.
Start and Start menu: The Start menu is a list of applications and utilities installed on your computer. You can open it by pressing Start, on the left side of your taskbar. From the keyboard, you can open the Start menu by pressing the Windows key.
Taskbar: The Windows taskbar shows programs that are currently open, and a Quick Launch area that allows quick access to launch specific programs. The notification area is on the right side, of the taskbar, showing the date and time, and programs running in the background.
Control Panel: The Control Panel is a collection of tools to help you configure and manage the resources on your computer. You can change settings for printers, video, audio, mouse, keyboard, date and time, user accounts, installed applications, network connections, power saving options, and more.
You can start the Control Panel from the Run box. Press Win+R, type control, and press Enter.
Cortana: Cortana is a virtual assistant introduced in Windows 10 that accepts voice commands. Cortana can answer questions, search your computer or Internet, set appointments and reminders, perform online purchases, and more. Cortana has similarities to other voice-activated services, such as Siri, Alexa, or Google Assistant, with the added benefit that it can search the information on your computer. To access Cortana in Windows 10, press Win+S.
Windows search box: The Windows search box is a convenient way to search for documents, pictures, videos, applications, and more. The search box is on your taskbar by default. In Windows 10, if you don’t see the search box, right- click the taskbar and select Taskbar settings. Make sure Use small taskbar buttons is Off.
File Explorer: The File Explorer, also called Windows Explorer, provides you with a view of the files and folders on the computer. You can browse the contents of your SSD, hard drive, and attached removable disks. You can search for files and folders, and open, rename, or delete them from the File Explorer.
To open a new File Explorer window, press Win+E. You can open more than one Explorer window at the same time, which helps with viewing multiple folders at once, or copying/moving-files from one to the other.
Internet browser: Your Internet browser is one of the most important applications on your computer. You can use it to find information on the Internet, view web pages, shop and buy merchandise, watch movies, play games, and more. Microsoft Edge is the default browser in Windows 10. Internet Explorer is included as the default browser in previous versions of Windows, from Windows 95 to Windows 8.1.
Snipping Tool: This tool is used to capture an image of a screen area and then annotate it with handwritten notes. The image can be saved as a html, png, gif. or jpg file. It can also be sent by email.
Write about Windows Desktop.
The Desktop is the first thing that is seen when the computer is turned on. It is also the home base, the area that is displayed after all programs have been closed. It is the initial display on the computer screen on which windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes appear. It is used to access disk drives, network drives, files, and other resources such as printers or the Recycle Bin. The most common Windows 10 Desktop elements are described below.
- This is what is displayed when you first log into Windows.
- The displayed background is the default Windows 10 background.
- This may be changed by the computer manufacturer or when Windows 10 is installed.
- Depending OR how Windows was configured, there could be from one to seven icons on the desktop.
- An icon is used to identify every’ type of item on your computer, such as a file, a program, or a folder.
- There are six standard desktop icons that represent Windows 30 elements.
- The display of these icons can be turned on or off depending on your preferences.
- The only icon that is displayed on the desktop by default is the one for the Recycle Bin.
- This menu is the central link to the programs, management tools, and file storage structure for the computer.
- To open the Start Menu, do one of the following:
- Click the Start button which appears at the left end of the Windows Taskbar.
- Press the Windows logo key on the left or right side of the space bar.
- The Taskbar is displayed at the bottom of the Window.
- It is used to start programs such as Word and Excel.
- It is also used to switch among open programs and open documents.
- The documents for each program will be grouped together.
- They can be displayed by moving the mouse pointer over the icon.
- The Taskbar can be customized to meet individual needs.
Discuss about Recycle Bin?
When files, folders, or icons are deleted on the local computer, not the network, they are stored in the Recycle Bin. These files remain in the Recycle Bin until the bin is emptied. If a file is accidentally deleted, it may be restored to its original location.
Restore Files or Folders:
- In order to restore a file, follow the steps below.
- Display the Recycle Bin Window by double-clicking the Recycle Bin icon on the Desktop. The Recycle Bin window’ will display.
- Click on the file or folder to be restored.
- Right-click on the file and then press Restore.
- The file will be removed from the Recycle Bin and placed into its original folder.
Restore All Items:
- Double-click on the Recycle Bin icon.
- Click the Restore All Items button in the Restore Group. Recycle Bin Dialog Will display.
- Click the Yes button to restore all the files.
Restore Selected Items:
- Select the files that need to be restored.
- Press-the CTRL key while selecting items to select files that are not all together.
- Press the Shift key at the beginning of a list, go to the end of the list and click the left mouse button to select items that are all together.
- Click the Restore the selected items in the Restore Group.
Empty the Recycle Bin:
To empty the Recycle Bin, complete the steps below.
- Double-click on the Recycle Bin icon.
- Click the Empty the Recycle Bin button in the Manage Group.
- A message will appear asking if the items are to be deleted.
- Click on Yes. This confirms the deletion of the files.
- If only some of the files are to be removed from the Recycle Bin, hold down the CTRL key and click each file that is to be removed, then click Delete on the File menu.
- To open a file that is in the Recycle Bin, drag the icon onto the Desktop, and then double-click it.
Write about Windows explorer or File Explorer.
Windows Explorer or File Explorer is the file management application used by Windows operating systems to browse folders and files. It provides a graphical interface for the user to navigate and access the files stored in the computer.
The main way to access the File Explorer is by clicking the folder icon in the Taskbar. After clicking the icon, the File Explorer window will open.
The initial File Explorer window is comprised of the following sections –
- The File Explorer ribbon, which resembles the ribbon featured in Microsoft Office. The ribbon contains buttons for common tasks to perform with your files and folders.
- The Navigation Pane gives you access to your libraries of documents and pictures, as well as your storage devices. It also features frequently used folders and network devices.
- The Frequent folders section on the right features the folders you’ve worked with recently to allow for quick access to them.
- The Recent files section in the lower part of the window features files and documents that you’ve opened recently.
The File Explorer Ribbon
In Windows 10, the File Explorer features a new ribbon toolbar, similar to the one featured in the recent versions of Microsoft Office, This ribbon contains buttons and commands for the most common tasks.
The Ribbon features four tabs, each with different commands. Among the tasks you can perform from the Home tab are –
- Copying and pasting files and folders from one place to another.
- Moving files and folders to another location.
- Copying files and folders to another location.
- Deleting a file or folder permanently or sending it to the Recycle Bin.
- Renaming a file or folder.
- Creating a new folder or other new items.
- Verifying or modifying the Properties of a document or folder.
- Opening a file or folder.
- Different options to select one or various files and folders.
The Share ribbon gives you different options to share your files and folders. For example –
- E-mailing or messaging a file.
- Compressing (“Zip”) a folder to take less space.
- Printing or faxing documents.
- Sharing with other users or networks.
The View ribbon allows you to change the way Windows displays your files and folders. Some of the changes you can make here are-
- Adding additional panes to show a preview or details of your files.
- Changing the layout of the files and folders from icons to list, and others.
- Sorting and arranging the contents of your folder.
- Hiding selected folders or files.
The File tab opens a menu with different options like –
- Opening an additional File Explorer window.
- Opening command windows for advanced users.
- Changing or configuring options about how File Explorer behaves.
How to open Windows Explorer
There are several ways to open a new Explorer window, which vary slightly depending on which version of Windows you are running.
In all versions of Windows
- Press Win + E (hold down the Windows key and press E).
- Click Start and select Run (or press Win + R), then type explorer or explorer.exe and press Enter.
In Windows 10
- Press the Win + X to open the Power User Tasks Menu, then select File Explorer (or press E).
- Click Start, select Programs, select Accessories, then Windows Explorer or Explorer.
Discuss about File Management in Windows.
File Management Can Help With The Following:
- Organizing folders and files in a file hierarchy, or a logical order, so that information is easy to locate and use.
- Saving files to the folder in which they w ill be stored for future use.
- Creating a new folder in order to reorganize information.
- Deleting files and folders that are no longer needed.
- Finding a file when the name of the file is not remembered.
- Creating shortcuts to files for easy access.
Copy a File or Folder:
There are occasions when a file or folder needs to be copied to another location in order for someone else to use it or for a backup copy to be made. To complete this task, complete the following steps.
- Open File Explorer, by doing one of the following:
- Click the folder in the left frame where the document(s) that are to be copied is located.
- Select a file from the right frame to copy.
- Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click the Copy To button. Select the folder to copy to from the list or select Choose Location.
- Close File Explorer.
Move a File or Folder:
It might become necessary to move a file, rather than copy it to another file or folder in order to have more space on a disk or to better organize the file system.
- Open File Explorer, if necessary.
- Select the file or folder you want to move.
- Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click Move to, and then select the folder where the files are to be moved.
Create a Folder:
- Folders can be created using File Explorer.
- Open File Explorer.
- Click the Folder into which the New Folder is to be added.
- Click the New Folder icon in the upper-right comer of the window.
- The new folder appears with a temporary name, New Folder.
- Type a name for the new folder.
- Press Enter.
It is also possible to create a new folder by right-clicking anywhere within the list of files and folders. In the shortcut menu, move the mouse pointer over New and then click Folder.
Rename a File or Folder:
- Open File Explorer.
- A list of Folders will appear on the left side of the window.
- Look for the folder where the file or folder is stored.
- Do one of the following:
- Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click the Rename button.
- Right-click the folder that is to be renamed and choose Rename from the Shortcut menu.
- With the File or Folder Name selected, input a new name for the file or folder.
- Press Enter.
Change Views of Files and Folders:
- Click the View Tab, in the Layout Group, click the desired view option.
- The most popular view options are: List and Details.
- Click the More button on the right side of the list to view additional options.
Delete a File or Folder:
This operation cannot be performed with a CD, but can be done with a flash drive or a network folder or file. However, with a RW CD, it is possible to erase all the files from a disk.
- Click the folder that is to be deleted.
- Do one of the following:
- Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click the Delete button.
- Right-click the file and then click Delete.
- Press the Delete key on the keyboard.
- Close File Explorer.
Locate a File or Folder:
The Search feature can be used to locate a file, a computer, or other items in a Windows program. To locate a file or folder, complete the following steps:
- Open File Explorer, if necessary.
- In the upper-right comer of the window, click the Search Documents box.
- Input the word or phrase that you want to search for.
- A list of the items that match the word or phrase will appear in the right frame of the window.
- Click the link for the item that is to he opened.
Explain the following (a) My Computer (b) My Documents (c) Pictures (d) Music (e) Videos
a) My Computer: This was introduced with the release of Microsoft Windows 95 and included with all versions of Windows after that. My Computer allows the user to explore the contents of their computer drives as well as manage their computer files.
In the pictures shown above, are examples of the My Computer icon in Microsoft Windows XP and just Computer, which was introduced with Windows Vista. Although the name has changed this icon still acts identical to the earlier My Computer.
How to open My computer:
- Get to the Windows Desktop and locate the My Computer Icon. This icon is almost always located on the top-left portion of the desktop and should look similar to the icon above.
- Double-click the My Computer icon. The following windows will appear when My Computer is open.
Using My Computer:
Once My Computer is open you’ll see all available drives on your computer. For most users you’ll only be concerned with the Local Disc (C:) drive. This is your hard drive and what stores all your files. Double-click this drive icon to open it and view of its contents.
Finding files in My Computer: If you’re having trouble finding where one of your files is stored use the Windows find feature to find the file. To do this from within My Computer either click on File and then Search or right-click on the C: drive or other folder you wish to search and click Search.
In the Search window type the name or part of the name of the file you’re looking for.
Adjust system settings with your computer:
If you wish to manage your computer or view other settings and information about your computer instead of double-clicking the My Computer icon to open it, right-click on the My Computer icon and click Properties. Performing these steps will open your System Properties.
b) My Documents: My Documents is a Microsoft Windows folder that stores documents, program settings, and other files that are used with many of the programs run on your computer. For example, when saving a file in Microsoft Word the default folder will often be My Documents. Saving all your personal files into the My Documents folder makes backing up and locating your personal files easier.
Many Microsoft Windows users should be able to locate the My Documents folder through their Desktop. However, for those users who do not have a My Documents icon on their desktop they can find the My Documents folder by following the below steps.
- From the Desktop double-click the My Documents folder.
- Open My Computer.
- Within My Computer double-click the xx Documents, where xx is the name of your user account. For example, if your login was named KSR, you would click on KSR’s Documents.
- Open My Computer.
- Double-click the C: drive.
- Within the C: drive double-click the Documents and Settings folder.
- In Documents and Settings double-click the folder for the users My Documents you wish to see. Using the same example as above, if your login w as named “KSR” you’d click on the “KSR” folder.
- Within your users name folder open the My Documents folder.
c) Pictures: The Pictures library is where Windows 7 consolidates all your digital photo files. These files may be physically stored in the My Pictures or Public Pictures folders, or in any subfolders within these folders.
The Pictures library looks pretty much like any other Windows Explorer folder. The big difference is that individual photo files are displayed as thumbnails of the photos themselves. For this reason, it’s better to display the Pictures library in one of the larger icon views; the larger the icons, the bigger the thumbnails. You can also view information about a file at the bottom of the Explorer window by clicking the file icon.
d) Music: The Music library is where Windows 7 consolidates all your digital music files. These files may be stored in the My Music or Public Music folders, or in any subfolders within these folders. (For example, if you’re an iPod/iPhone user, you’ll find most of your music stored in the iTunes subfolder within the My Music folder.)
Individual music tracks are typically stored in folders for the corresponding album. Album folders are stored in folders for the performing artist. It goes like this: Music folder —► Artist folder —> Album folder —► Track files.
e) Videos: We now move from still pictures to moving pictures, in the form of digital videos. In Windows 7, digital video files are consolidated in the Videos library, and physically stored in the My Videos and Public Videos folders.
Video files are displayed as “filmstrip” icons, with thumbnails from each video as part of the icon. Click a Tile to view information about that file at the bottom of the Explorer window.
There aren’t a whole lot of unique options in the Videos library. You can play any individual video by double-clicking the file icon, of course. You can also play all the videos in the library (or in any folder or subfolder) by clicking the Play All button in the Explorer toolbar.