Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1
Define Computer. Explain the characteristics of Computer.
The word compute is derived from the Latin wore ‘computare’, was meaning “arithmetic, accounting”. A computer is an electronic device that accepts data from the user, processes it, produces results, displays them to the users, and stores the results for future usage.
“A computer is a programmable electronic machine designed to take input, perform prescribed arithmetic and logical operations at fast speeds, and provide the output of these operations.”
1. Speed: Speed is one of the major characteristics of the computer system. A computer works so fast that it can process any task and provide the output in fractions of seconds. A powerful computer can handle trillions of instructions per second which is really incredible.
With its incredible speed, computers can reduce the amount of time to perform any digital task. The speed of a computer is measured in microseconds and nanoseconds.
2. Accuracy: Computers not only provide incredible speed, instead, they are also capable of consistently working with accuracy. The degree of accuracy in computers is very high; computers can perform calculations at almost 100% accuracy. Errors may occur in a computer system, but only because of wrong human input or inaccurate data.
3. Diligence: Unlike a human, the computer doesn’t get tired or lacks its concentration. Due to this characteristic, it overpowers human being in most of the regular tasks. It can work for hours without any fault. This means that if millions of calculations are to be done, a computer will perform every calculation and provide all the results with the same accuracy.
4. Versatility: Versatility is one of the most wonderful features of computers. This means that the computer has the ability to perform completely different kinds of works with the same accuracy and efficiency at the same time. It is not just a calculating machine anymore.
5. Reliability: The results obtained by the computer are very reliable. But this is true only when the data given to the computer or program is correct and reliable.
6. Consistency: The computer is so consistent that it can perform trillions of processes without errors for several hours. This means that we can use a computer 24 hours a day or 365 days a year continuously. Furthermore, it provides consistent results for the same set of data, that is, if it is given the same set of data multiple times, it will give the same result each time.
7. Memory: A computer has a built-in memory, where it can store instant data immediately. Here, we are referring to random access memory (primary memory) that holds data as long as the computer is connected-to a power source. Data is erased from memory after shutting down the computer. In addition, the computer includes ROM (read-only memory), the cache memory of different levels, virtual memory, etc., thereby speeding performance.
8. Storage Capacity: Computers can store vast amounts of data. Due to their incredible speed, computers can quickly retrieve data from storage devices. The storage capacity of the computer is commonly measured in Mega-Byte (MB), Giga¬Bytes (GB), Tera-Bytes (TB), and Peta-bytes (PB).
9. Remembrance Power: The computer has the power to store any data or information for as long as we like. Data can ‘ also be recalled easily if needed. It is our choice to decide how much data we want to store on die computer and when to recall or erase these data.
10. Automation: Computers can also be used to automate routine tasks with the help of a task scheduler such as launching a specific application or software, sending an email, scanning for viruses, and many other maintenance tasks. Besides, computers can also be programmed to perform many complex tasks.
Define Computer? What are the Uses/Applications of Computers.
Computer is an Electronic Device, Which stores data, process it and gives the result consistently, accurately at very high speed according to our instruction. The word computer is derived from the word “Compute”. It means perform or calculate. That’s way; the computer is also called as calculating device.
Applications of Computers:
Computers have proliferated into various areas of our lives. For a user, computer is a tool that provides the desired information, whenever needed. You may use computer to get information about the reservation of tickets (railways, airplanes and cinema halls), books in a library, medical history of a person, a place in a map, or the dictionary meaning of a word. The information may be presented to you in the form of text, images, video clips, etc.
The Figure shows some of the applications of computer. Some of the application areas of the computer are listed below
Education: Computers are extensively used, as a tool and as an aid, for imparting education. Educators use computers to prepare notes and presentations of their lectures, Computers are used to develop computer-based training packages, to provide, distance education using the e-learning software, and to conduct online examinations. Researchers use computers to get easy access to conference and journal details and to get global access to the research material.
Entertainment: Computers have had a major impact on the entertainment industry. The user can download and view movies, play games, chat, book tickets for cinema halls, use multimedia for making movies, incorporate visual and sound effects using computers, etc. The users can also listen to music, download and share music, create music using computers, etc.
Sports: A computer can be used to watch a game, view the scores, improve the game, play games (like chess, etc.) and create games. They are also used for the purposes of training players.
Advertising: Computer rs a powerful advertising media. Advertisement can be displayed on different websites, electronic-mails can be sent and reviews of a product by different customers can be posted. Computers are also used to create an advertisement using the visual and the sound effects. For the advertisers, computer is a medium via which the advertisements can be viewed globally. Web advertising has become a significant factor in the marketing plans of almost all companies. In fact, the business model of Google is mainly dependent on web advertising for generating revenues.
Medicine: Medical researchers and practitioners use computers to access information about the advances in medical research or to take opinion of doctors globally. The medical history of patients is stored in the computers. Computers are also an integral part of various kinds of sophisticated medical equipment’s like ultrasound machine, CAT scan machine, MRI scan machine, etc. Computers also provide assistance to the’ medical surgeons during critical surgery operations like. laparoscopic operations, etc.
Science and Engineering: Scientists and engineers use computers for performing complex scientific calculations, for designing and making drawings (CAD/CAM applications) and also for simulating and testing the designs. Computers are used for storing the complex data, performing complex calculations and for visualizing 3-dimensional objects. Complex scientific applications like the launch of the rockets, space exploration, etc., are not possible without the computers.
Government: The government uses computers to manage its own operations and also for e-governance. The websites of the different government departments provide information to the users. Computers are used for the filing of income tax return, paying taxes, online submission of water and electricity bills, for the access of land record details, etc. The police department uses computers to search for criminals using fingerprint matching, etc.
Home: Computers have now become an integral part of home equipment. At home, people use computers to play games, to maintain the home accounts, for communicating with friends and relatives via Internet, for paying bills, for education and learning, etc. Microprocessors are embedded in house hold utilities like, washing machines, TVs, food processors, home theatres, security devices, etc.
In addition to the applications of the computers discussed above, computers have also proliferated into areas like banks, investments, stock trading, accounting, ticket reservation, military operations, meteorological predictions, social networking, business organizations, police department, video conferencing, book publishing, web newspapers, and information sharing and so on.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Computers.
Computer has making human life faster because of its incredible speed, Accuracy and storage, with which human can save anything and search it out easily when needed. We can say computer a versatile machine because it is very flexible in performing their jobs, but Computers have several important advantages and disadvantages.
1. Multitasking: Multitasking is one of the major advantage of computer. Person can perform multiple task, multiple operation, calculate numerical problems within few seconds. Computer can perform trillion of instructions per second.
2. Speed: Now computer is not just a calculating device. Now a day’s computer has very important role in human life. One of the main advantages of computer is its incredible speed, which helps human to complete their task in few seconds. All the operations can be performed very fast just because of its speed elsewise it takes a long time to perform the task.
3. Cost/ Stores huge amount of data: It is a low cost solution. Person can save huge data within a low budget. Centralized database of storing information is the major advantage that can reduce cost.
4. Accuracy: One of the root advantages of computer is that can perform not only calculations but also with accuracy.
5. Data Security: Protecting digital data is known as data security. Computer provides security from destructive forces and from unwanted action from unauthorized users like cyber-attack or access attack.
6. Stores Huge Amount of Data: Data storing capabilities of computers these days are “HUGE” as compared to previous years. They can save or store any volume of data or instruction given to them permanently.
Users can recall the data or instructions or information given to them anytime & any place. The Storing capability of computer is measured in MB (Mega-Bytes), GB (Giga-Bytes), TB (Tera-Bytes).
7. Research: In research computer are used as they can solve tedious mathematical and logical calculations with high speed and amazing accuracy. The scientist prefers the use of computer in their experiments because of their usefulness. The results of experiments can be stored in a computer hard disk permanently and can be recalled any time required. With the use of a computer the speed of research increases, therefore, computers are made an integral part of research and development
1. Unemployment: Different tasks are performed automatically by using computers. It reduces the need of people and increases unemployment in society.
2. Wastage of Time And Energy: Many people use computers without positive purpose. They play games and chat for a long period of time. It causes wastage of time and energy. Young generation is now spending more time on the social media websites like Facebook, Twitter etc or texting their friends all night through smartphones which is bad for both studies and their health. And it also has adverse effects on the social life.
3. Data Security: The data stored on a computer can be accessed by unauthorized persons through networks. It has created serious problems for the data security.
4. Computer Crimes: People use the computer for negative activities. They hack the credit card numbers of the people and misuse them or they can steal important data from big organizations.
5. Privacy Violation: The computers are used to store personal data of the people. The privacy of a person can be violated if the personal and confidential records are not protected properly.
6. Health Risks: The improper and prolonged use of computer can results in injuries or disorders of hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks and back. The users can avoid health risks by using the computer in proper position. They must also take regular breaks while using the computer for longer period of time. It is recommended to take a couple of minutes break after 30 minutes of computer usage.
7. Impact on Environment: The computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are polluting the environment. The wasted parts of computer can release dangerous toxic materials. Green computer is a method to reduce the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer. It includes recycling and regulating manufacturing processes. The used computers must be donated or disposed off properly.
How Computers are useful for Society and Business? Explain.
Computers useful to Society:
Computers play a great role in the society. Whether at home, in school, at the mall or in the office, computers significantly help in the accomplishment of various tasks. Be it at work or at play, computers have undeniably been utilized to perform general or specific activities that enable life to be more convenient and worry-free.
1. Computers in Business: In the field of business, computers are very useful. They are used in keeping records of daily sales and profits. Computers are also used to prepare materials to promote the products of the business establishments.
2. Computers in Engineering: Engineers use computers to create the design of a complex object using a computer program for Computer-Aided Drafting.
3. Computers in the Government: Computers are used to keep records of the people that the government serves. Several government agencies use computers to facilitate the task they are required to give to the people.
4. Computers at Home: Computers are used at home for recreational purposes. You can listen to music, watch movies and play games. Children use their computers at home to do their schoolwork. Parents use computers to assist them in doing their daily tasks. If your computer at home has internet access, then you can explore the amazing features of the Internet in the comfort of your home.
5. Computers in Manufacturing: Computers are used in manufacturing to manipulate machine that perform dangerous tasks or tasks that are repeatedly done.
6. Computers in School: Computer Education is one subject taught in schools today. Teachers use computers in classroom instruction, in computing grades and in preparing visual aids. Students use computers to study various computer applications. Libraries are connected to the Internet and students access the internet to do research.
7. Computers in Science: Computers are used in science to stimulate experiments, which are dangerous to perform in real life. Computers are also used to record data and information derived from experiments.
Computers useful to Business:
1. Communication: Communication is key when gaining and maintaining clients and other important contacts. Computers give businesses access to email, instant messaging and custom customer contact systems. Computerized phone systems allow for automated support during off hours and a virtual operator can quickly direct callers to the correct department for faster support.
2. Marketing: Computers allow businesses to create websites, stunning ads and complete marketing campaigns. Marketing videos can be edited and custom ads created in-house with the use of specialized software, businesses can completely develop and manage websites with their own servers or connect remotely to a third-party business to upload their latest content such as articles, product images and blog posts.
3. Accounting: Accounting without computers presents a high risk for’ human error. Accounting software allows businesses to simply input their financial data and instantly see gains and losses. All necessary tax reports are available the moment the data is entered. Using computers for invoicing, managing expenses and calculating payroll is vital for ensuring financial data is as accurate as possible.
4. Storage: Instead of filing cabinets, businesses are able to store millions of files using computers and servers. Data can be stored centrally for easy access from multiple computers or stored locally for individual use. Computerized storage saves space and provides a far more efficient organization strategy. With encryption, passwords and replace keys, data remains secure.
5. Documents and Reports: Most businesses have some sort of productivity software which typically includes a word processor and spreadsheet application. These two programs allow businesses to create reports, memos, tutorials and even colorful ads for company events. Spreadsheet applications give businesses the chance to organize, manage and calculate both numeric and alphabetic data. With charts and graphs, reporting becomes visual instead of text-based.
6. Research: From learning more about the competition to’ discovering what customers really want, research isn’t as difficult as it once was, thanks to computers. Search engines, forums, social networks and industry specific websites provide businesses with a wealth of information and research data.
Define Computer? Explain in detail Logical Organization of Digital Computer with neat diagram.
Computer is an electronic device which stores data, processes it, and gives the result consistently, accurately at very high speed according to our instruction. The Word computer is derived from .the word “Compute”. It means perform or calculate. So a Powerful computer can handle 3 to 4 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS).
Block Diagram of Digital Computer
Input Unit: It is used to send data or programs into computer. There are several kinds of input units are available, they are Keyboard, Light Pen, Joystick, Mouse, etc.
CPU: CPU Stands for Central Processing Unit. This is the main and most important part of the computer it is made up of three units. They are a) Memory Unit, b) CU, and c) ALU.
a) Memory Unit: The function of the memory unit is to store data or programs or information in the form of “ON” and “OFF” States. Because computer is an electronic device which identifies either “ON” and “OFF” states. That’s why, all the information or data or programs will be stored inside the computer in the form of “ON” and “OFF” states.
b) CU: CU stands for Control Unit. This unit to control the overall units either internally (i.e. memory and ALU) and externally (i.e. Input-Output units) connected to computer.
c) ALU: ALU stands for Arithmetic Logical Unit. It will perform the arithmetic and logical operations.
Output Unit: This unit is used to take the final results. There are two kinds of output Units. They are a) Softcopy Devices, Ex: Monitor and b) Hardcopy Device, Ex: Printer, Plotter.
Softcopy devices are used to prepare the softcopies (monitor output). Prepared softcopy is used for temporary reference and it will save the stationery and printing cost Whereas the hard copy devices are used to prepare the hardcopies (Paper Output). Prepared hardcopy is used for further reference and it will waste the stationary and printing cost for , unnecessary output is taken.
Secondary Storage Devices: This unit is used to store large amount of data permanently. There are several kinds of secondary storage devices, they are Magnetic Tapes, Magnetic disks, CDs etc.
Peripheral Devices: Whose devices are connected CPU externally then those devices are called Peripheral devices.
Input and output units are called as peripherals devices.