Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5

Question 1.
Write about Task Bar
Answer:
The Taskbar lies across the bottom edge of your screen. The Start button on the left provides access to all the programs, data files, and other features available on your computer. When you open a program or file, a corresponding rectangular icon will be displayed on your taskbar – even if the program has been minimized and is no longer visible on your screen. To access that program, you just need to click its icon on the taskbar.

You can customize the taskbar, including the way taskbar buttons look, how they group together when you have more than one window open, change where the taskbar is on your desktop, and decide what icons and apps are on it.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 1

  • To rearrange the order of app buttons on the taskbar, drag a button from its current position to a different position on the taskbar. You can rearrange apps as often as you like.
  • All open files from the same app are always grouped together, even if you didn’t open them one after the other. This is so you can see all of the previews for that app at the same time.

Move the taskbar

  • Usually, you can find the taskbar at the bottom of the desktop, hut you can move it to the sides or top of the desktop. Before you can move the taskbar, you need to unlock it.
  • Press and hold or right-click an empty space on the taskbar. If Lock the taskbar has a check mark next to it, the taskbar is locked. You can unlock it by tapping or clicking Lock the taskbar, which removes the check mark.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 2

  • To move the taskbar Do one of the following: o Tap an empty space on the taskbar, and then drag it to one of the four edges of the desktop. When the taskbar is where you want it, let go.

Change how taskbar buttons appear

  • You can choose how buttons are grouped together when there’s more than one window open, and change the size of taskbar button icons.

1. On the Taskbar tab, select one of the options from the Taskbar buttons list:

  • Always combine, hide labels: This is the default setting. Each app appears as a single, unlabeled button, even when multiple windows for that app are open.
  • Combine when taskbar is full: This setting shows each window as an individual, labeled button. When the taskbar becomes crowded, apps with multiple open windows collapse into a single app button, tap or clicking the button displays a list of the windows that are open.
  • Never combine: This setting shows each window as an individual, labeled button, and never combines them, no matter how many windows are open. As more apps and windows open, buttons get smaller, and eventually the buttons will scroll.

2. To use small taskbar button icons, select the Use small taskbar buttons check box. To use large icons, clear the check box.
3. Tap or click OK.

Pin an app to the taskbar
You can pin an app directly to the taskbar for quick and easy access.

  • Swipe in from the right edge of the screen, and then tap Search. (If you’re using a mouse, point to the upper-right comer of the screen, move the mouse pointer down, and then click Search.) In the search box, enter the name of the app you want to pin. Then on the search results page, tap or click the app to open it on the desktop.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 3

  • On the desktop, press and hold or right-click the app’s button on the taskbar to open the app’s Jump List (a list of shortcuts to recently opened files, folders, and websites), and then tap or click Pin this program to taskbar.
  • To remove a pinned app from the taskbar, open the app’s Jump List, and then tap or click Unpin this program from taskbar.

Question 2.
Write about Control Panel.
Answer:
The Control Panel in Windows 7 is the place to go when you need to make changes to various settings of your computer system. You can control most Windows commands and features using the various options and sliders in the Control Panel.

To open the Control Panel, click the Start button on the taskbar and then click Control Panel on the Start menu. Windows 7 gives you three different views for looking at your computer’s Control Panel: To switch views, click the View By drop-down button (labeled Category by default) in the upper- right comer of the Control Panel and then choose one of the views from the button’s drop-down menu.

Category view
By default, the Control Panel is displayed in Category view, which is separated into eight categories, ranging from System and Security to Ease of Access. To open a window with the Control Panel options for any one of these categories, simply click the category’s hyperlink.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 4

The following table gives you a description of all the Control Panel categories, including the various programs you can find by clicking each category’s hyperlink.

Click This Category: Link To Display These Groups of Links
System and Security Action Center, Windows Firewall, System, Windows Update, Power Options, Backup and Restore, BitLocker Drive Encryption, and Administrative Tools
User Accounts User Accounts, Windows Card space, Credential Manager, and Mail (32-bit)
Network and Internet Network and Sharing Center, Home group, and Internet Options
Appearance and Personalization Personalization, Display, Desktop Gadgets, Taskbar and Start Menu, Ease of Access Center, Folder Options, and Fonts
Hardware and Sound Devices and Printers, AutoPlay, Sound, Power Options, Display, and Windows Mobility Center
Clock, Language, and Region Date and Time, and Region and Language
Programs Programs and Features, Default Programs, and Desktop Gadgets
Ease of Access Ease of Access Center and Speech Recognition
Programs Used to uninstall a program

Question 3.
Write a short note on Soft Copy Devices.
Answer:
Soft copy output devices produce an electronic version of an output – for example, a file that is stored on a hard disk CD, or pen drive – and is displayed on the computer screen (monitor). The following are the features of a soft copy output:

  • The output can be viewed only when the computer is on.
  • The user can easily edit soft copy output.
  • Soft copy cannot be used by people who do not have a computer.
  • Searching for data in a soft copy is easy and fast.
  • Electronic distribution of material as soft copy is cheaper. It can be done easily and quickly.

Monitors:
The monitor is a soft copy output device used to display video and graphics information generated by the computer through the video card. Computer monitors are similar to television screens but they display information at a much higher quality. The monitor is connected to either the VGA or the digital video interface (DVI) port on the video card.

Monitors come in three variants—Cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), and plasma

Question 4.
Write a short note on Hard Copy Devices.
Answer:
Hard copy output devices produce a physical form of output. For example, the content of a file printed on paper is a form of hard copy output. The features of hard copy output include the following:

  • A computer is not needed to see the output.
  • Editing and inserting in the hard copy is difficult.
  • Hard copy output can be easily distributed to people who do not have a computer.
  • Searching for data in a hard copy is a tiring and difficult. job.
  • Distribution of a hard copy is not only costly but slow as well.

Printers:

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 5
A printer is a device that takes the text and graphics information obtained from a computer and prints it on to a paper. Printers are available in the market in various sizes, speeds, sophistication, and costs. Usually, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution colour printing.

Printers can be broadly classified into two groups: impact and non-impact printers as shown in Figure

Impact Printers:
These printers print characters by striking an inked ribbon against the paper. Examples of impact printers include dot matrix printers, daisy wheel printers, and most types of line printers.

Advantages:

  • These printers enable the user to produce carbon copies.
  • They are cheap.

Disadvantages:

  • Impact printers are slow.
  • They offer poor print quality, especially in the case of graphics.
  • They can be extremely noisy.
  • They can print only using the standard font.

Non-impact Printers:
Non-impact printers offer better print quality, faster printing, and the ability to create prints that contain sophisticated graphics. Non-impact printers use either solid or liquid cartridge-based ink, which is either sprayed, dripped, or electrostatically drawn onto the page. The main types of non-impact printers are inkjet, laser, and thermal printers.

Advantages:

  • Non-impact printers produce prints of good quality, and hence render sophisticated graphics.
  • They are noiseless.
  • They are fast.
  • They can print text in different fonts.

Disadvantages:

  • These printers are expensive.
  • The ink cartridges used by them are also costly.

Question 5.
Distinguish Between CRT and Flat Panel Monitors
Answer:

CRT Monitors Flat Panel Monitors
1. CRT Monitors are of larger size and occupy more area. 1. Flat Panel Monitors do not require a lot of desktop  space for there.
2. There is no such facility to hang CRT Monitors because of the shape and structure of these monitors. 2. For the sake of convenience, the flat panel monitor can be hang on a wall
3. The viewable area of CRT monitors ranges from 14 inches to 21 inches. 3. Flat Panel Monitors offer viewable areas from 14 inches to 18 inches.
4. CRT monitors came up this drawback to same extent because of better viewing angle. 4. These monitors have a restricted viewing angle.
5. Because of the structure of these monitors, there will be little distortion in the picture, reducing the clarity. 5. Because of the flat screens, they do not cause any distortions in the picture.
6. CRT monitors consume a great amount of electricity to keep the screen refreshed. 6. These monitors do not consume a lot of energy because of their tiny transistors.
7. CRT monitors emit low-level radiations. 7. These type of monitors do not emit any radiation.
8. CRT monitor is not much expensive compared to flat panel monitors. 8. Flat Panel monitors are much more expensive than CRT monitors.

Question 6.
Define Memory, and What are the types of memories.
Answer:
Memory is an internal storage area in the computer, which is used to store data and programs either temporarily or permanently. Computer memory can be broadly divided into two groups – primary memory and secondary memory. While the main memory holds instructions and data when a program is executing, the auxiliary or the secondary memory holds data and programs that are not currently in use and provides long-term storage. To execute a program, all the instructions or data that has to be used by the CPU has to be loaded into the main memory. However, the primary memory is volatile and so it can retain data only when the power is on. Moreover, it is very costlier and therefore limited in capacity.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 6

Secondary memory stores data or instructions permanently, even when the power supply is turned off. It is cheap and can store large volumes of data. Moreover, data stored in auxiliary memory is highly portable, as the users can easily move it from one computer to another. The only drawback of secondary memory is that data access time is high when compared with the primary memory.

Question 7.
What is ROM?
Answer:
ROM is an acronym for Read-Only Memory. It refers to computer memory chips containing permanent or semi-permanent data. Unlike RAM, ROM is non-volatile; even after, you turn off your computer, the contents of ROM will remain.

Almost every computer comes with a small amount of ROM containing the boot firmware. This consists of a few kilobytes of code that tell the computer what to do when it starts up, e.g., running hardware diagnostics and loading the operating system into RAM. On a PC, the boot firmware is called the BIOS.

Originally, ROM was actually read-only. To update the programs in ROM, you had to remove and physically replace your ROM chips. Contemporary versions of ROM allow some limited rewriting, so you can usually upgrade firmware such as the BIOS by using installation software. Rewritable ROM chips include PROMs (programmable read-only memory), EPROMs (erasable read-only memory), EEPROMs (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory), and a common variation of EEPROMs called flash memory.

Question 8.
What are the difference between RAM and ROM?
Answer:

ROM RAM
1. It is a non-volatile memory It is a volatile Memory
2. The contents are permanent The contents temporary
3. Cost effective Cost is very high
4. It performs Read operations only It performs Read/Write operations only.
5. Generally the operating system programs can be stored. User defined programs can be stored at any time.

Question 9.
Differences between Cache Memory and Primary Memory.
Answer:
Primary memory is the large amount of memory your computer uses to load programs and files you work on. It is expandable up to very high amounts, which means user can load more programs and files.

Cache memory is a small amount of memory that the computer processor uses to store information, like calculations, which it then quickly retrieves, and then moves on to other calculations. It is usually located very near the processor or built into the processor.

Both are temporary memories but they vary mainly based on speed, size and cost.

  • Placement: Cache is usually present on the CPU chip itself. Primary memory (RAM) is placed on the motherboard and is connected to the CPU via the Memory Bus.
  • Speed: Because cache is closer to the CPU, it is much faster than RAM. Each read access on the primary memory has to travel via the Memory Bus while the CPU cache is right there.
  • Size: The size of the cache is much less compared to that of primary memory. The size of Primary Memory or RAM in today’s computers is a few GBs while the size of cache is a few MBs.
  • Cost: Cache is more expensive than primary memory.

Question 10.
Write about memory cards.
Answer:
a Memory card is a type of storage media that is often used to store photos, videos, or other data in electronic devices. Devices that commonly use a memory card include digital cameras, digital camcorders, handheld computers, MP3 players, PDAs, cell phones, game consoles, and printers. The picture to the right is a MicroSD flash memory card, which is just one of the types of memory cards available.

There are a handful of different types of memory cards on the market, each varying in size, compatibility, and storage capacity.

Question 11.
Mention any three types of keyboard.
Answer:
A computer keyboard is one of the primary input devices used with a computer that looks similar to those found on electric typewriters, but with some additional keys. Keyboards allow you to input letters, numbers, and other symbols into a computer that can serve as commands or be used to type text.

Standard Classification:
The standard selection of keys can be classified as follows:

  • Alphanumeric keys: The standard letters and numbers.
  • Punctuation keys: The comma, period, semicolon, and similar keys.
  • Special keys: This includes the function keys, control keys, arrow keys, caps Lock key, and so on.

Question 12.
How does a mouse works?
Answer:
When you move the mouse on a surface it senses the motion and a signal is sent to the computer. The computer then acts appropriately according to how the mouse was moved or was clicked.

Computer Mouse Technologies
Let’s take a look at the different computer mouse technologies, starting with the old-type mechanical mice:

Mechanical Mouse:
The first type of mouse around, the mechanical mouse (also known as a ball mouse), uses a moving ball to work. As you move the mouse across a surface, the ball moves too. Also inside the mouse are two rollers that roll against, two sides of the moving ball. One roller tracks the horizontal motion of the mouse, and the other roller tracks the vertical motion.

The motion of the two rollers is converted into electrical a signal which is then sent to the computer through a cord. The software on the computer then converts these electrical signals into meaningful X and Y movement of the mouse cursor that you see on-screen.

Optical Mouse:
Optical Mice are the most common computer mice in use today. An optical computer mouse works using optical technology and so don’t require any moving parts.

As you move an optical mouse over a surface, a small red LED (Light-Emitting Diode) emits light onto a surface and reads the pattern or grid on that surface. The mouse converts this surface information into meaningful motion data which is sent to the computer.

Question 13.
What is Human Ware.
Answer:
Human ware refers to the persons who design, program, and operate a computer installation. There are numerous categories of jobs, but the three principal positions required in a large computer installation are system analyst, programmer, and computer operator. People in each of these areas generally perform special-purpose tasks under the supervision of a director or manager.

The position of a systems analyst requires the broad background and extensive understanding of the above three job categories. The main task of the system analyst is to study information and processing requirements. A systems analyst defines the applications problem, determines systems specifications, recommends hardware and software changes, and designs information processing procedures.

A programmer requires a comprehensive knowledge of one or more programming languages and standard coding procedures. This position does not require the broader understanding of the structure and inner workings of an application. A programmer’s principal job is to code or prepare programs based on the specifications made by the systems analyst.

A computer operator requires the least extensive background of the three categories. A computer operator generally performs a series of well-defined tasks that will keep, the computer operating at maximum efficiency. The operational efficiency of a computer installation is dependent on the quality’ and abilities of the operational staff.