Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5

Question 1.
Write about Task Bar
Answer:
The Taskbar lies across the bottom edge of your screen. The Start button on the left provides access to all the programs, data files, and other features available on your computer. When you open a program or file, a corresponding rectangular icon will be displayed on your taskbar – even if the program has been minimized and is no longer visible on your screen. To access that program, you just need to click its icon on the taskbar.

You can customize the taskbar, including the way taskbar buttons look, how they group together when you have more than one window open, change where the taskbar is on your desktop, and decide what icons and apps are on it.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 1

  • To rearrange the order of app buttons on the taskbar, drag a button from its current position to a different position on the taskbar. You can rearrange apps as often as you like.
  • All open files from the same app are always grouped together, even if you didn’t open them one after the other. This is so you can see all of the previews for that app at the same time.

Move the taskbar

  • Usually, you can find the taskbar at the bottom of the desktop, hut you can move it to the sides or top of the desktop. Before you can move the taskbar, you need to unlock it.
  • Press and hold or right-click an empty space on the taskbar. If Lock the taskbar has a check mark next to it, the taskbar is locked. You can unlock it by tapping or clicking Lock the taskbar, which removes the check mark.

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  • To move the taskbar Do one of the following: o Tap an empty space on the taskbar, and then drag it to one of the four edges of the desktop. When the taskbar is where you want it, let go.

Change how taskbar buttons appear

  • You can choose how buttons are grouped together when there’s more than one window open, and change the size of taskbar button icons.

1. On the Taskbar tab, select one of the options from the Taskbar buttons list:

  • Always combine, hide labels: This is the default setting. Each app appears as a single, unlabeled button, even when multiple windows for that app are open.
  • Combine when taskbar is full: This setting shows each window as an individual, labeled button. When the taskbar becomes crowded, apps with multiple open windows collapse into a single app button, tap or clicking the button displays a list of the windows that are open.
  • Never combine: This setting shows each window as an individual, labeled button, and never combines them, no matter how many windows are open. As more apps and windows open, buttons get smaller, and eventually the buttons will scroll.

2. To use small taskbar button icons, select the Use small taskbar buttons check box. To use large icons, clear the check box.
3. Tap or click OK.

Pin an app to the taskbar
You can pin an app directly to the taskbar for quick and easy access.

  • Swipe in from the right edge of the screen, and then tap Search. (If you’re using a mouse, point to the upper-right comer of the screen, move the mouse pointer down, and then click Search.) In the search box, enter the name of the app you want to pin. Then on the search results page, tap or click the app to open it on the desktop.

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  • On the desktop, press and hold or right-click the app’s button on the taskbar to open the app’s Jump List (a list of shortcuts to recently opened files, folders, and websites), and then tap or click Pin this program to taskbar.
  • To remove a pinned app from the taskbar, open the app’s Jump List, and then tap or click Unpin this program from taskbar.

Question 2.
Write about Control Panel.
Answer:
The Control Panel in Windows 7 is the place to go when you need to make changes to various settings of your computer system. You can control most Windows commands and features using the various options and sliders in the Control Panel.

To open the Control Panel, click the Start button on the taskbar and then click Control Panel on the Start menu. Windows 7 gives you three different views for looking at your computer’s Control Panel: To switch views, click the View By drop-down button (labeled Category by default) in the upper- right comer of the Control Panel and then choose one of the views from the button’s drop-down menu.

Category view
By default, the Control Panel is displayed in Category view, which is separated into eight categories, ranging from System and Security to Ease of Access. To open a window with the Control Panel options for any one of these categories, simply click the category’s hyperlink.

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The following table gives you a description of all the Control Panel categories, including the various programs you can find by clicking each category’s hyperlink.

Click This Category: Link To Display These Groups of Links
System and Security Action Center, Windows Firewall, System, Windows Update, Power Options, Backup and Restore, BitLocker Drive Encryption, and Administrative Tools
User Accounts User Accounts, Windows Card space, Credential Manager, and Mail (32-bit)
Network and Internet Network and Sharing Center, Home group, and Internet Options
Appearance and Personalization Personalization, Display, Desktop Gadgets, Taskbar and Start Menu, Ease of Access Center, Folder Options, and Fonts
Hardware and Sound Devices and Printers, AutoPlay, Sound, Power Options, Display, and Windows Mobility Center
Clock, Language, and Region Date and Time, and Region and Language
Programs Programs and Features, Default Programs, and Desktop Gadgets
Ease of Access Ease of Access Center and Speech Recognition
Programs Used to uninstall a program

Question 3.
Write a short note on Soft Copy Devices.
Answer:
Soft copy output devices produce an electronic version of an output – for example, a file that is stored on a hard disk CD, or pen drive – and is displayed on the computer screen (monitor). The following are the features of a soft copy output:

  • The output can be viewed only when the computer is on.
  • The user can easily edit soft copy output.
  • Soft copy cannot be used by people who do not have a computer.
  • Searching for data in a soft copy is easy and fast.
  • Electronic distribution of material as soft copy is cheaper. It can be done easily and quickly.

Monitors:
The monitor is a soft copy output device used to display video and graphics information generated by the computer through the video card. Computer monitors are similar to television screens but they display information at a much higher quality. The monitor is connected to either the VGA or the digital video interface (DVI) port on the video card.

Monitors come in three variants—Cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), and plasma

Question 4.
Write a short note on Hard Copy Devices.
Answer:
Hard copy output devices produce a physical form of output. For example, the content of a file printed on paper is a form of hard copy output. The features of hard copy output include the following:

  • A computer is not needed to see the output.
  • Editing and inserting in the hard copy is difficult.
  • Hard copy output can be easily distributed to people who do not have a computer.
  • Searching for data in a hard copy is a tiring and difficult. job.
  • Distribution of a hard copy is not only costly but slow as well.

Printers:

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 5 5
A printer is a device that takes the text and graphics information obtained from a computer and prints it on to a paper. Printers are available in the market in various sizes, speeds, sophistication, and costs. Usually, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution colour printing.

Printers can be broadly classified into two groups: impact and non-impact printers as shown in Figure

Impact Printers:
These printers print characters by striking an inked ribbon against the paper. Examples of impact printers include dot matrix printers, daisy wheel printers, and most types of line printers.

Advantages:

  • These printers enable the user to produce carbon copies.
  • They are cheap.

Disadvantages:

  • Impact printers are slow.
  • They offer poor print quality, especially in the case of graphics.
  • They can be extremely noisy.
  • They can print only using the standard font.

Non-impact Printers:
Non-impact printers offer better print quality, faster printing, and the ability to create prints that contain sophisticated graphics. Non-impact printers use either solid or liquid cartridge-based ink, which is either sprayed, dripped, or electrostatically drawn onto the page. The main types of non-impact printers are inkjet, laser, and thermal printers.

Advantages:

  • Non-impact printers produce prints of good quality, and hence render sophisticated graphics.
  • They are noiseless.
  • They are fast.
  • They can print text in different fonts.

Disadvantages:

  • These printers are expensive.
  • The ink cartridges used by them are also costly.

Question 5.
Distinguish Between CRT and Flat Panel Monitors
Answer:

CRT Monitors Flat Panel Monitors
1. CRT Monitors are of larger size and occupy more area. 1. Flat Panel Monitors do not require a lot of desktop  space for there.
2. There is no such facility to hang CRT Monitors because of the shape and structure of these monitors. 2. For the sake of convenience, the flat panel monitor can be hang on a wall
3. The viewable area of CRT monitors ranges from 14 inches to 21 inches. 3. Flat Panel Monitors offer viewable areas from 14 inches to 18 inches.
4. CRT monitors came up this drawback to same extent because of better viewing angle. 4. These monitors have a restricted viewing angle.
5. Because of the structure of these monitors, there will be little distortion in the picture, reducing the clarity. 5. Because of the flat screens, they do not cause any distortions in the picture.
6. CRT monitors consume a great amount of electricity to keep the screen refreshed. 6. These monitors do not consume a lot of energy because of their tiny transistors.
7. CRT monitors emit low-level radiations. 7. These type of monitors do not emit any radiation.
8. CRT monitor is not much expensive compared to flat panel monitors. 8. Flat Panel monitors are much more expensive than CRT monitors.

Question 6.
Define Memory, and What are the types of memories.
Answer:
Memory is an internal storage area in the computer, which is used to store data and programs either temporarily or permanently. Computer memory can be broadly divided into two groups – primary memory and secondary memory. While the main memory holds instructions and data when a program is executing, the auxiliary or the secondary memory holds data and programs that are not currently in use and provides long-term storage. To execute a program, all the instructions or data that has to be used by the CPU has to be loaded into the main memory. However, the primary memory is volatile and so it can retain data only when the power is on. Moreover, it is very costlier and therefore limited in capacity.

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Secondary memory stores data or instructions permanently, even when the power supply is turned off. It is cheap and can store large volumes of data. Moreover, data stored in auxiliary memory is highly portable, as the users can easily move it from one computer to another. The only drawback of secondary memory is that data access time is high when compared with the primary memory.

Question 7.
What is ROM?
Answer:
ROM is an acronym for Read-Only Memory. It refers to computer memory chips containing permanent or semi-permanent data. Unlike RAM, ROM is non-volatile; even after, you turn off your computer, the contents of ROM will remain.

Almost every computer comes with a small amount of ROM containing the boot firmware. This consists of a few kilobytes of code that tell the computer what to do when it starts up, e.g., running hardware diagnostics and loading the operating system into RAM. On a PC, the boot firmware is called the BIOS.

Originally, ROM was actually read-only. To update the programs in ROM, you had to remove and physically replace your ROM chips. Contemporary versions of ROM allow some limited rewriting, so you can usually upgrade firmware such as the BIOS by using installation software. Rewritable ROM chips include PROMs (programmable read-only memory), EPROMs (erasable read-only memory), EEPROMs (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory), and a common variation of EEPROMs called flash memory.

Question 8.
What are the difference between RAM and ROM?
Answer:

ROM RAM
1. It is a non-volatile memory It is a volatile Memory
2. The contents are permanent The contents temporary
3. Cost effective Cost is very high
4. It performs Read operations only It performs Read/Write operations only.
5. Generally the operating system programs can be stored. User defined programs can be stored at any time.

Question 9.
Differences between Cache Memory and Primary Memory.
Answer:
Primary memory is the large amount of memory your computer uses to load programs and files you work on. It is expandable up to very high amounts, which means user can load more programs and files.

Cache memory is a small amount of memory that the computer processor uses to store information, like calculations, which it then quickly retrieves, and then moves on to other calculations. It is usually located very near the processor or built into the processor.

Both are temporary memories but they vary mainly based on speed, size and cost.

  • Placement: Cache is usually present on the CPU chip itself. Primary memory (RAM) is placed on the motherboard and is connected to the CPU via the Memory Bus.
  • Speed: Because cache is closer to the CPU, it is much faster than RAM. Each read access on the primary memory has to travel via the Memory Bus while the CPU cache is right there.
  • Size: The size of the cache is much less compared to that of primary memory. The size of Primary Memory or RAM in today’s computers is a few GBs while the size of cache is a few MBs.
  • Cost: Cache is more expensive than primary memory.

Question 10.
Write about memory cards.
Answer:
a Memory card is a type of storage media that is often used to store photos, videos, or other data in electronic devices. Devices that commonly use a memory card include digital cameras, digital camcorders, handheld computers, MP3 players, PDAs, cell phones, game consoles, and printers. The picture to the right is a MicroSD flash memory card, which is just one of the types of memory cards available.

There are a handful of different types of memory cards on the market, each varying in size, compatibility, and storage capacity.

Question 11.
Mention any three types of keyboard.
Answer:
A computer keyboard is one of the primary input devices used with a computer that looks similar to those found on electric typewriters, but with some additional keys. Keyboards allow you to input letters, numbers, and other symbols into a computer that can serve as commands or be used to type text.

Standard Classification:
The standard selection of keys can be classified as follows:

  • Alphanumeric keys: The standard letters and numbers.
  • Punctuation keys: The comma, period, semicolon, and similar keys.
  • Special keys: This includes the function keys, control keys, arrow keys, caps Lock key, and so on.

Question 12.
How does a mouse works?
Answer:
When you move the mouse on a surface it senses the motion and a signal is sent to the computer. The computer then acts appropriately according to how the mouse was moved or was clicked.

Computer Mouse Technologies
Let’s take a look at the different computer mouse technologies, starting with the old-type mechanical mice:

Mechanical Mouse:
The first type of mouse around, the mechanical mouse (also known as a ball mouse), uses a moving ball to work. As you move the mouse across a surface, the ball moves too. Also inside the mouse are two rollers that roll against, two sides of the moving ball. One roller tracks the horizontal motion of the mouse, and the other roller tracks the vertical motion.

The motion of the two rollers is converted into electrical a signal which is then sent to the computer through a cord. The software on the computer then converts these electrical signals into meaningful X and Y movement of the mouse cursor that you see on-screen.

Optical Mouse:
Optical Mice are the most common computer mice in use today. An optical computer mouse works using optical technology and so don’t require any moving parts.

As you move an optical mouse over a surface, a small red LED (Light-Emitting Diode) emits light onto a surface and reads the pattern or grid on that surface. The mouse converts this surface information into meaningful motion data which is sent to the computer.

Question 13.
What is Human Ware.
Answer:
Human ware refers to the persons who design, program, and operate a computer installation. There are numerous categories of jobs, but the three principal positions required in a large computer installation are system analyst, programmer, and computer operator. People in each of these areas generally perform special-purpose tasks under the supervision of a director or manager.

The position of a systems analyst requires the broad background and extensive understanding of the above three job categories. The main task of the system analyst is to study information and processing requirements. A systems analyst defines the applications problem, determines systems specifications, recommends hardware and software changes, and designs information processing procedures.

A programmer requires a comprehensive knowledge of one or more programming languages and standard coding procedures. This position does not require the broader understanding of the structure and inner workings of an application. A programmer’s principal job is to code or prepare programs based on the specifications made by the systems analyst.

A computer operator requires the least extensive background of the three categories. A computer operator generally performs a series of well-defined tasks that will keep, the computer operating at maximum efficiency. The operational efficiency of a computer installation is dependent on the quality’ and abilities of the operational staff.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4

Question 1.
Distinguish between Primary and Secondary Memories.
Answer:

Primary Memories Secondary Memories
1. Primary Memories are volatile Memories i.e. temporary Memories. Secondary Memories are non-­volatile memories i.e Permanent Memories
2. Primary memories are costlier Secondary memories are cheaper
3. The Primary memories accessing speed is high The Secondary memories accessing speed is slow.
4. The contents of main memory are accessed directly by the CPU The contents of secondary memory is accessed indirectly by the CPU.
5. Primary Memory is also called as Main Memory Secondary Memory is also called as Auxiliary Memory.
6. Primary Memories are Limited. Secondary Memories are unlimited.
7. Main memories are uses semi­conductor technology. Secondary Memories are uses Magnetic Technology.
8. The information storing procedure is very easy. The information storing procedure is very complex.
9. Memory locations are identified with the help of its unique address. Memory locations are identified with the help of side, track, sectors etc.
10. Main Memory has random access Property. Secondary memories have sequential and random access property.
11. Examples: RAM and ROM Examples: Magnetic Tape, Floppy Disk etc.

MS WINDOWS

Question 2.
Explain the features of MS-Windows.
Answer:
Windows 10 is the most recent version of the Microsoft Windows operating system. There have been many different versions of Windows over the years, including Windows 8 (released in 2012), Windows 7 (2009), Windows Vista (2006), and Windows XP (2001). While older versions of Windows mainly ran on desktop and laptop computers, Windows 10 is also designed to run equally well on tablets.

An operating system manages all of the hardware and software on a computer. Without it, the computer would be useless.

Desktop: The desktop is a fundamental part of the default GUI (graphical user interface) in Windows. It is a space where you can organize applications, folders, and documents, which appear as icons.

Start and Start menu: The Start menu is a list of applications and utilities installed on your computer. You can open it by pressing Start, on the left side of your taskbar. From the keyboard, you can open the Start menu by pressing the Windows key.

Taskbar: The Windows taskbar shows programs that are currently open, and a Quick Launch area that allows quick access to launch specific programs. The notification area is on the right side, of the taskbar, showing the date and time, and programs running in the background.

Control Panel: The Control Panel is a collection of tools to help you configure and manage the resources on your computer. You can change settings for printers, video, audio, mouse, keyboard, date and time, user accounts, installed applications, network connections, power saving options, and more.

You can start the Control Panel from the Run box. Press Win+R, type control, and press Enter.

Cortana: Cortana is a virtual assistant introduced in Windows 10 that accepts voice commands. Cortana can answer questions, search your computer or Internet, set appointments and reminders, perform online purchases, and more. Cortana has similarities to other voice-activated services, such as Siri, Alexa, or Google Assistant, with the added benefit that it can search the information on your computer. To access Cortana in Windows 10, press Win+S.

Windows search box: The Windows search box is a convenient way to search for documents, pictures, videos, applications, and more. The search box is on your taskbar by default. In Windows 10, if you don’t see the search box, right- click the taskbar and select Taskbar settings. Make sure Use small taskbar buttons is Off.

File Explorer: The File Explorer, also called Windows Explorer, provides you with a view of the files and folders on the computer. You can browse the contents of your SSD, hard drive, and attached removable disks. You can search for files and folders, and open, rename, or delete them from the File Explorer.

To open a new File Explorer window, press Win+E. You can open more than one Explorer window at the same time, which helps with viewing multiple folders at once, or copying/moving-files from one to the other.

Internet browser: Your Internet browser is one of the most important applications on your computer. You can use it to find information on the Internet, view web pages, shop and buy merchandise, watch movies, play games, and more. Microsoft Edge is the default browser in Windows 10. Internet Explorer is included as the default browser in previous versions of Windows, from Windows 95 to Windows 8.1.

Snipping Tool: This tool is used to capture an image of a screen area and then annotate it with handwritten notes. The image can be saved as a html, png, gif. or jpg file. It can also be sent by email.

Question 3.
Write about Windows Desktop.
Answer:
The Desktop is the first thing that is seen when the computer is turned on. It is also the home base, the area that is displayed after all programs have been closed. It is the initial display on the computer screen on which windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes appear. It is used to access disk drives, network drives, files, and other resources such as printers or the Recycle Bin. The most common Windows 10 Desktop elements are described below.

Desktop Background:

  • This is what is displayed when you first log into Windows.
  • The displayed background is the default Windows 10 background.
  • This may be changed by the computer manufacturer or when Windows 10 is installed.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4 1

Desktop Icon:

  • Depending OR how Windows was configured, there could be from one to seven icons on the desktop.
  • An icon is used to identify every’ type of item on your computer, such as a file, a program, or a folder.
  • There are six standard desktop icons that represent Windows 30 elements.
  • The display of these icons can be turned on or off depending on your preferences.
  • The only icon that is displayed on the desktop by default is the one for the Recycle Bin.

Start Menu:

  • This menu is the central link to the programs, management tools, and file storage structure for the computer.
  • To open the Start Menu, do one of the following:
    • Click the Start button which appears at the left end of the Windows Taskbar.
    • Press the Windows logo key on the left or right side of the space bar.

Taskbar:

  • The Taskbar is displayed at the bottom of the Window.
  • It is used to start programs such as Word and Excel.
  • It is also used to switch among open programs and open documents.
  • The documents for each program will be grouped together.
  • They can be displayed by moving the mouse pointer over the icon.
  • The Taskbar can be customized to meet individual needs.

Question 4.
Discuss about Recycle Bin?
Answer:
When files, folders, or icons are deleted on the local computer, not the network, they are stored in the Recycle Bin. These files remain in the Recycle Bin until the bin is emptied. If a file is accidentally deleted, it may be restored to its original location.

Restore Files or Folders:

  • In order to restore a file, follow the steps below.
  • Display the Recycle Bin Window by double-clicking the Recycle Bin icon on the Desktop. The Recycle Bin window’ will display.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4 2

  • Click on the file or folder to be restored.
  • Right-click on the file and then press Restore.
  • The file will be removed from the Recycle Bin and placed into its original folder.

Restore All Items:

  • Double-click on the Recycle Bin icon.
  • Click the Restore All Items button in the Restore Group. Recycle Bin Dialog Will display.
  • Click the Yes button to restore all the files.

Restore Selected Items:

  • Select the files that need to be restored.
    • Press-the CTRL key while selecting items to select files that are not all together.
    • Press the Shift key at the beginning of a list, go to the end of the list and click the left mouse button to select items that are all together.
  • Click the Restore the selected items in the Restore Group.

Empty the Recycle Bin:
To empty the Recycle Bin, complete the steps below.

  • Double-click on the Recycle Bin icon.
  • Click the Empty the Recycle Bin button in the Manage Group.
  • A message will appear asking if the items are to be deleted.
  • Click on Yes. This confirms the deletion of the files.

Notes:

  • If only some of the files are to be removed from the Recycle Bin, hold down the CTRL key and click each file that is to be removed, then click Delete on the File menu.
  • To open a file that is in the Recycle Bin, drag the icon onto the Desktop, and then double-click it.

Question 5.
Write about Windows explorer or File Explorer.
Answer:
Windows Explorer or File Explorer is the file management application used by Windows operating systems to browse folders and files. It provides a graphical interface for the user to navigate and access the files stored in the computer.

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The main way to access the File Explorer is by clicking the folder icon in the Taskbar. After clicking the icon, the File Explorer window will open.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4 4

The initial File Explorer window is comprised of the following sections –

  • The File Explorer ribbon, which resembles the ribbon featured in Microsoft Office. The ribbon contains buttons for common tasks to perform with your files and folders.
  • The Navigation Pane gives you access to your libraries of documents and pictures, as well as your storage devices. It also features frequently used folders and network devices.
  • The Frequent folders section on the right features the folders you’ve worked with recently to allow for quick access to them.
  • The Recent files section in the lower part of the window features files and documents that you’ve opened recently.

The File Explorer Ribbon
In Windows 10, the File Explorer features a new ribbon toolbar, similar to the one featured in the recent versions of Microsoft Office, This ribbon contains buttons and commands for the most common tasks.

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The Ribbon features four tabs, each with different commands. Among the tasks you can perform from the Home tab are –

  • Copying and pasting files and folders from one place to another.
  • Moving files and folders to another location.
  • Copying files and folders to another location.
  • Deleting a file or folder permanently or sending it to the Recycle Bin.
  • Renaming a file or folder.
  • Creating a new folder or other new items.
  • Verifying or modifying the Properties of a document or folder.
  • Opening a file or folder.
  • Different options to select one or various files and folders.

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The Share ribbon gives you different options to share your files and folders. For example –

  • E-mailing or messaging a file.
  • Compressing (“Zip”) a folder to take less space.
  • Printing or faxing documents.
  • Sharing with other users or networks.

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The View ribbon allows you to change the way Windows displays your files and folders. Some of the changes you can make here are-

  • Adding additional panes to show a preview or details of your files.
  • Changing the layout of the files and folders from icons to list, and others.
  • Sorting and arranging the contents of your folder.
  • Hiding selected folders or files.

The File tab opens a menu with different options like –

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4 8

  • Opening an additional File Explorer window.
  • Opening command windows for advanced users.
  • Changing or configuring options about how File Explorer behaves.

How to open Windows Explorer
There are several ways to open a new Explorer window, which vary slightly depending on which version of Windows you are running.

In all versions of Windows

  • Press Win + E (hold down the Windows key and press E).
  • Click Start and select Run (or press Win + R), then type explorer or explorer.exe and press Enter.

In Windows 10

  • Press the Win + X to open the Power User Tasks Menu, then select File Explorer (or press E).
  • Click Start, select Programs, select Accessories, then Windows Explorer or Explorer.

Question 6.
Discuss about File Management in Windows.
Answer:
File Management Can Help With The Following:

  • Organizing folders and files in a file hierarchy, or a logical order, so that information is easy to locate and use.
  • Saving files to the folder in which they w ill be stored for future use.
  • Creating a new folder in order to reorganize information.
  • Deleting files and folders that are no longer needed.
  • Finding a file when the name of the file is not remembered.
  • Creating shortcuts to files for easy access.

Copy a File or Folder:
There are occasions when a file or folder needs to be copied to another location in order for someone else to use it or for a backup copy to be made. To complete this task, complete the following steps.

  • Open File Explorer, by doing one of the following:
  • Click the folder in the left frame where the document(s) that are to be copied is located.
  • Select a file from the right frame to copy.
  • Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click the Copy To button. Select the folder to copy to from the list or select Choose Location.
  • Close File Explorer.

Move a File or Folder:
It might become necessary to move a file, rather than copy it to another file or folder in order to have more space on a disk or to better organize the file system.

  • Open File Explorer, if necessary.
  • Select the file or folder you want to move.
  • Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click Move to, and then select the folder where the files are to be moved.

Create a Folder:

  • Folders can be created using File Explorer.
  • Open File Explorer.
  • Click the Folder into which the New Folder is to be added.
  • Click the New Folder icon in the upper-right comer of the window.
  • The new folder appears with a temporary name, New Folder.
  • Type a name for the new folder.
  • Press Enter.

Note:
It is also possible to create a new folder by right-clicking anywhere within the list of files and folders. In the shortcut menu, move the mouse pointer over New and then click Folder.

Rename a File or Folder:

  • Open File Explorer.
  • A list of Folders will appear on the left side of the window.
  • Look for the folder where the file or folder is stored.
  • Do one of the following:
    • Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click the Rename button.
    • Right-click the folder that is to be renamed and choose Rename from the Shortcut menu.
  • With the File or Folder Name selected, input a new name for the file or folder.
  • Press Enter.

Change Views of Files and Folders:

  • Click the View Tab, in the Layout Group, click the desired view option.
  • The most popular view options are: List and Details.
  • Click the More button on the right side of the list to view additional options.

Delete a File or Folder:
This operation cannot be performed with a CD, but can be done with a flash drive or a network folder or file. However, with a RW CD, it is possible to erase all the files from a disk.

  • Click the folder that is to be deleted.
  • Do one of the following:
    • Click the Home Tab, in the Organize Group, click the Delete button.
    • Right-click the file and then click Delete.
    • Press the Delete key on the keyboard.
  • Close File Explorer.

Locate a File or Folder:
The Search feature can be used to locate a file, a computer, or other items in a Windows program. To locate a file or folder, complete the following steps:

  • Open File Explorer, if necessary.
  • In the upper-right comer of the window, click the Search Documents box.
  • Input the word or phrase that you want to search for.
  • A list of the items that match the word or phrase will appear in the right frame of the window.
  • Click the link for the item that is to he opened.

Question 7.
Explain the following (a) My Computer (b) My Documents (c) Pictures (d) Music (e) Videos
Answer:
a) My Computer: This was introduced with the release of Microsoft Windows 95 and included with all versions of Windows after that. My Computer allows the user to explore the contents of their computer drives as well as manage their computer files.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 4 9

In the pictures shown above, are examples of the My Computer icon in Microsoft Windows XP and just Computer, which was introduced with Windows Vista. Although the name has changed this icon still acts identical to the earlier My Computer.

How to open My computer:

  • Get to the Windows Desktop and locate the My Computer Icon. This icon is almost always located on the top-left portion of the desktop and should look similar to the icon above.
  • Double-click the My Computer icon. The following windows will appear when My Computer is open.

Using My Computer:
Once My Computer is open you’ll see all available drives on your computer. For most users you’ll only be concerned with the Local Disc (C:) drive. This is your hard drive and what stores all your files. Double-click this drive icon to open it and view of its contents.

Finding files in My Computer: If you’re having trouble finding where one of your files is stored use the Windows find feature to find the file. To do this from within My Computer either click on File and then Search or right-click on the C: drive or other folder you wish to search and click Search.

In the Search window type the name or part of the name of the file you’re looking for.

Adjust system settings with your computer:
If you wish to manage your computer or view other settings and information about your computer instead of double-clicking the My Computer icon to open it, right-click on the My Computer icon and click Properties. Performing these steps will open your System Properties.

b) My Documents: My Documents is a Microsoft Windows folder that stores documents, program settings, and other files that are used with many of the programs run on your computer. For example, when saving a file in Microsoft Word the default folder will often be My Documents. Saving all your personal files into the My Documents folder makes backing up and locating your personal files easier.

Many Microsoft Windows users should be able to locate the My Documents folder through their Desktop. However, for those users who do not have a My Documents icon on their desktop they can find the My Documents folder by following the below steps.

  • From the Desktop double-click the My Documents folder.
    or
  • Open My Computer.
  • Within My Computer double-click the xx Documents, where xx is the name of your user account. For example, if your login was named KSR, you would click on KSR’s Documents.
    or
  • Open My Computer.
  • Double-click the C: drive.
  • Within the C: drive double-click the Documents and Settings folder.
  • In Documents and Settings double-click the folder for the users My Documents you wish to see. Using the same example as above, if your login w as named “KSR” you’d click on the “KSR” folder.
  • Within your users name folder open the My Documents folder.

c) Pictures: The Pictures library is where Windows 7 consolidates all your digital photo files. These files may be physically stored in the My Pictures or Public Pictures folders, or in any subfolders within these folders.

The Pictures library looks pretty much like any other Windows Explorer folder. The big difference is that individual photo files are displayed as thumbnails of the photos themselves. For this reason, it’s better to display the Pictures library in one of the larger icon views; the larger the icons, the bigger the thumbnails. You can also view information about a file at the bottom of the Explorer window by clicking the file icon.

d) Music: The Music library is where Windows 7 consolidates all your digital music files. These files may be stored in the My Music or Public Music folders, or in any subfolders within these folders. (For example, if you’re an iPod/iPhone user, you’ll find most of your music stored in the iTunes subfolder within the My Music folder.)

Individual music tracks are typically stored in folders for the corresponding album. Album folders are stored in folders for the performing artist. It goes like this: Music folder —► Artist folder —> Album folder —► Track files.

e) Videos: We now move from still pictures to moving pictures, in the form of digital videos. In Windows 7, digital video files are consolidated in the Videos library, and physically stored in the My Videos and Public Videos folders.

Video files are displayed as “filmstrip” icons, with thumbnails from each video as part of the icon. Click a Tile to view information about that file at the bottom of the Explorer window.

There aren’t a whole lot of unique options in the Videos library. You can play any individual video by double-clicking the file icon, of course. You can also play all the videos in the library (or in any folder or subfolder) by clicking the Play All button in the Explorer toolbar.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3

Question 1.
Discuss in brief about key board and mouse.
Answer:
Keyboard: A computer keyboard is one of the primary input devices used with a computer that looks similar to those found on electric typewriters, but with some additional keys. Keyboards allow you to input letters, numbers, and other symbols into a computer that can serve as commands or be used to type text.

Standard Classification:
The standard selection of keys can be classified as follows:

  • Alphanumeric keys: The standard letters and numbers.
  • Punctuation keys: The comma, period, semicolon, and similar keys.
  • Special keys: This includes the function keys, control keys, arrow keys, caps Lock key, and so on.

Mouse:
A mouse is a small handheld input device that controls a computer screen’s cursor or pointer in conjunction with the way it is moved on a flat surface. The mouse term name originates from its likeness to a small, corded and elliptical shaped device that looks like a mouse tail. Some mouse devices have integrated features, such as extra buttons that may be programmed and assigned with different commands.

Because the mouse reduces the use of a keyboard, its invention and continuous innovation is considered one of the most important breakthroughs in computer ergonomics.

The mouse was invented in 1963 by Douglas C. Engelbart from Stanford and later pioneered in 1981 by the Xerox Corporation. Computer users were generally skeptical about the mouse invention until approximately 1984, when the original Apple Macintosh (Macintosh 128K) was released.

Early mouse devices connected to computers through a cable or cord and were characterized by a roller ball integrated as a movement sensor underneath the device. Modem mouse devices use optical technology, where cursor movements are controlled by a visible or invisible light beam. Many models feature wireless connectivity through various wireless technologies, including radio frequency (RF) and Bluetooth.

The three main mouse device types are:

  • Mechanical: Built with a trackball underneath the mouse and mechanical sensors, allowing easy movement in all directions
  • Optomechanical: Similar to the mechanical type but uses optical, rather than mechanical, sensors to detect trackball movement
  • Optical: The most expensive. Uses a laser to detect mouse movement, has no mechanical parts and reacts more precisely than other types.

Mouse Operations:
There are four basic mouse operations that you can perform:
1. Click: To select an item or choose a menu command, point the mouse at it with the pointer and the left mouse button.

2. Click and Drag: To move an item is called dragging. To complete this operation, point at the item, it and hold down the left mouse button. While holding down the left mouse button drag the item where you want it to be. Release the button.

3. Double-Click: This is a shortcut method used to access an item or to open or close a window quickly without using a menu. To complete this operation, point the mouse pointer to the item and it with the left mouse button.

4. Right-Click: When you click the right mouse button you can access a drop down menu to choose what you can do with the item, such as “copy, “paste”, etc. Every menu is specific to what you click. To perform this operation, point at the desired item or object and the right mouse button ONLY once.

Question 2.
Write a short notes on Printers?
Answer:
Generally, printers fall into- two categories : a) Impact Printers and b) Non-Impact Printers.

An impact printer creates an image by using pins or hammers to press an inked ribbon against the paper. The most common type of impact printers is the dot matrix printer Line printers, and band printer. Non-impact Printers use other means to create an image. Examples for the non-impact printers are Ink jet printers, and laser printer

Dot Matrix Printers: A dot matrix printer creates an image by using a mechanism called a print head, which contains a matrix of short pins arranged in one or more columns. On receiving instruction from the PC, the printer can push any of the pins out in any combination. By pushing out pins in various combinations, the print head can create alphanumeric characters which is show in the following figure.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 1

The speed of dot matrix printers is measured in characters per second (CPS). The slowest dot matrix printer create 50 to 70 characters per second; the fastest print more than 500 cps. The following figure shows

Line Printers: A line printer is a special type of impact printer. It works like dot matrix printer but uses a special wide print head that can print an entire line of text at one time. Line printers do not offer high resolution but are incredibly fast; the fastest can print 3,000 lines of text per minute.

Band Printers: A band printer features a rotating band embossed with alphanumeric characters. To print a character, the machine rotates the band to the desired character, then a small hammer taps the band, pressing the character against a ribbon. A good-quality band printer can generate 2,000 lines of text per minute.

Ink Jet Printers : Ink jet printers create an image directly on the paper by spraying ink through tiny nozzles. The ink jet printers can print two to four pages per minute. Many ink jet printers use one cartridge for color printing and a separate black- only cartridge for black-and-white printing. This feature saves money by reserving colored ink only for color printing.

Laser Printers: Laser printers are more expensive than ink jet printers, their print quality is higher, and most are faster. As their name implies, a laser is at the heart of these printers. Just as the electron gun in a monitor can target any pixel, the laser in a laser printer can aim at any point on a drum, creating an electrical charged. Then with pressure and heat, the toner is transferred off the drum onto the paper.

A color laser printer works like a single color model, except that the process is repeated four times and a different toner color is used for each pass. The four colors used are Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black.

Plotters: A plotter is a special kind of output device, ft is like a printer because it produces images on paper, but the plotter is typically used to print large-format images, such as construction drawings created by an architect.

Question 3.
Discuss about Plotters.
Answer:
A plotter is a printing device that is usually used to print vector graphics with high print quality. They are widely used to draw maps, in scientific applications, and in CAD, CAM, and computer aided engineering (CAE). Architects use plotters to draw blueprints of the structures they are working on. A plotter is basically a printer that interprets commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens. Since plotters are much more expensive than printers, they are used only for specialized applications. Hewlett-Packard is the leading vendor of plotters worldwide. There are two different types of plotters, drum and flatbed.

Drum plotter: A drum plotter is used to draw graphics on paper that is wrapped around a drum. This type of plotter is usually used with mainframe and minicomputer systems. The drum plotter works by rotating the drum back and forth to pro-duce vertical motion. The pen, which is mounted on a carriage, is moved across the width of the paper. Hence, the vertical movement of the paper and the horizontal movement of the pen create the required design under the control of the computer.

Drum plotters can make multicolour drawings by using pens with different coloured inks. Moreover, drum plotters support very large plot sizes with paper widths of up to 1 metre.

Flatbed plotter: In a flatbed plotter, the paper is spread on the flat rectangular surface of the plotter, and the pen is moved over it. Flatbed plotters are less expensive, and are used in many small computing systems. The size of the plot is limited only by the size of the plotter’s bed. In this type of plotter, the paFcr does not move; rather, plotting is done by moving an arm that moves a pen over the paper.

In case of a flatbed plotter, pens of different colours are mounted in the pen-holding mechanism that moves on the sur-face. The microprocessor in the plotter selects the desk pen and controls its movement under the control of the computer.

Question 4.
What is Software? Explain different types of Software?
Answer: The Computer is a machine and it can not think and do its own. Since it has no intelligent quotient, it must be instructed to carry out any task. Hence it is required to specify the set of sequential instructions that the computer can perform to solve any task.

Software is basically “the set of instructions grouped into programs that make the computer to function in the desired way. It is a collection of programs to perform a particular task.

System Software:
A system software is a collection of programs designed to operate, control and extend processing capabilities of computer and which makes the operation of a computer system more effective and efficient. The system software can be divided into two types
a) Operating System
b) Language Translators/Processors

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 2

a) Operating System: An operating system plays an important role in a computer system which controls all other components of the computer system. If there is no operating system, then there is no computer. It controls the CPU, Memory, Input / Output devices etc. It is responsible for smooth functioning and efficient operation of the computer system. Some of the popular operating system are DOS, WINDOWS, UNIX and LINUX etc.

b) Language Translators/Processors: A programmer can write program in high level language because it is much easy to understand by the computer and convert into its own machine language. Language Translators converts the high level language program into machine understandable form (Machine language). The language processors are Assembler, Interpreter, Compiler.

Application Software:
Application software is a set of programs necessary to carryout operations for a specific application. These are the programs written by programers to enable computer to perform a specific task. Application software can be divided into two categories.

a) Special purpose Application Software
b) General Purpose Application Software

a) Special Purpose Application Software: This is based upon the customer requirements. This is developed to meet all the requirements mentioned by the customer. This requirement cannot be directly installed to any other user’s workspace, because requirement may differ from one customer to another customer so this software may not fulfil to everyone.

b) General Purpose Application Software: This type of software developed for general requirements for carrying out a specific task. Here many customers can use simultaneously due to filfilment of all customers.

Question 5.
What is Hardware and Software and differentiate them.
Answer:
The term hardware is applied to any of the physical equipments in the computer system, such as the machinery and equipments of itself usually containing electronic components and performing some kinds of functions in information processing. Thus the input, output, storage, processing and control devices are the hardware of the computer system. On other hand, the set of instrucitons grouped into programs that make the computer to function in the desired way. Collection of programs to perform a particular tasks is called software.

Software:

  • It is the collection of programs to perform a particular task.
  • There are so many different types of softwares available for different purposes.
  • The softwares are categorized as system softwares and application softwares.
  • Without the software, we can not do any task using the computer.
  • Sufficient training is necessary to use the software.
  • Software is continuing expenses.

Hardware:

  • It is formed as the physical components of the computer system.
  • All of the hardware parts may do different tasks such as Hard disk is for storing, Keyboard is for giving inputs etc.,
  • The hardware peripherals are also categorized such as 12GHz Microprocessors, 2GHz Microprocessors and so on,
  • Without the hardware, there is no computers.
  • Sufficient training is necessary to use the hardware.
  • Except for upgrading, it is one-time expense.

Differences between the software and hardware:

Software Hardware
1. It is collection of program to bring the computer hardware system into operation. It is the physical components of the computer system.
2. It consists of numbers, alphabets, alphanumeric symbols, identifiers, keywords, etc. It consists of electronic components like IC’s diodes, resistors, crystals boards, insulators etc.
3. This should be prepared according to the type of the software. The design can be modified according to the capacity.
4. It will vary as per the computer and its built-in function and programming language. It is almost construct for all types of computer system.
5. It is designed and developed by a experienced programmer in a high level language, which is readable by the human being. The hardware can understand only low- level language or machine language.
6. It is represented in any high level language such as BASIC, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA etc. The hardware works only on binary code as 1’s and 0’s.
7. The software is categorized as operating systems, utilities, language processors, application software etc. The hardware consists of Input, Output, Memory, ALU, Control Unit etc.

Question 6.
Define Memory? Discuss about Main Memories in detail?
Answer:
The function of the memory is to store data or programs or information are in the form of “ON” and “OFF” States. Because Computer is an electronic device which identified only two signals either “ON” and “OFF” states. That’s why all the information or data or programs are stored inside the computer are in the form of “ON” and “OFF” states. Memories further divided into two types they are a) Primary Memories and b) Secondary Memories.

a) Primary Memories: The primary memory of computer is called as main memory. The main memories are fast memories. It is used to store programs and data. The memory location of main memory is accessed directly by the CPU. Main memory uses semi-conductor technology. These memories are very costlier. It has random access property and small access time. The capacity of primary memory is limited. Each storage locations has unique address by which it can be identified. The following primary memories are commonly used in computers, (a) Magnetic Core Memory and (b) Semi-conductor Memory.

b) Magnetic Core Memory: Magnetic core memory made up of small magnetic cores with wires running through them. Depending on the direction of the electric current flows through the wires, electricity magnetizes the core in different directions. The direction of magnetization indicates certain data representation of the CPU., Since the form f memory is bulky., it lias given way to newer technologies such as semiconductor memories.

b) Semi-conductor Memory : The modem computers are made up of semi-conductor elements in the primary storage units. This type of memory is made by etching electronic circuits onto a silicon chip.

In all computers semi-conductors are used for Primary memory storage. It is divided into two portions, (i) ROM (Read Only Memory) (ii) RAM (Random Access Memory).

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 3

ROM Memory: ROM is an acronym for Read-Only Memory. It refers to computer memory chips containing permanent or semi-permanent data. Unlike RAM, ROM is non-volatile; even after you turn off your computer, the contents of ROM will remain.

Almost every computer comes with a small amount of’ ROM containing the boot firmware. This consists of a few kilobytes of code that tell the computer what to do when it starts up, e.g., running hardware diagnostics and loading the operating system into RAM. On a PC, the boot firmware is called the BIOS.

Originally, ROM was actually read-only. To update the programs in ROM, you had to remove and physically replace your ROM chips. Contemporary versions of ROM allow some limited rewriting, so you can usually upgrade firmware such as the BIOS by using installation software. Rewritable ROM chips include PROMs (programmable read-only memory), EPROMs (erasable read-only memory), EEPROMs (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory), and a common variation of EEPROMs called flash memory.

RAM Memory: Random Access Memory (RAM) provides space for your computer to read and write data to be accessed by the CPU (central processing unit). When people refer to a computer’s memory, they usually mean its RAM.

If you add more RAM to your computer, you reduce the number of times your CPU must read data from your hard disk. This usually allows your computer to work considerably faster, as RAM is many times faster than a hard disk.

RAM is volatile, so data stored in RAM stays there only as long as your computer is running. As soon as you turn the computer off, the data stored in RAM disappears.

When you turn your computer on again, your computer’s boot firmware (called BIOS on a PC) uses instructions stored semi-permanently in ROM chips to read your operating system and related files from the disk and load them back into RAM.

SDR, DDR, DDR2, and DDR3 RAM: Several types of. RAM are used in modern computers. Before 2002, most computers used single data rate (SDR) RAM. Most computers made since then use either double data rate (DDR), DDR2, or DDR3 RAM. DDR2 is able to achieve faster transfer rates to prevent limitation of your CPU’s performance, and DDR3 technology takes these advancements even further.

Question 7.
What is Cache Memory? Explain
Answer:
Cache memory is an intermediate form of storage between the CPU registers and the RAM. The CPU uses cache memory to store instructions and data that are repeatedly required to execute programs, thereby increasing the performance of the computer.

Maintaining frequently accessed data and instructions in the cache helps in avoiding the need to access the slower DRAM repeatedly. Cache memory is basically a portion of memory made of high speed static RAM (SRAM) instead of the slower and cheaper DRAM which is used for main memory. Some memory caches are in-built in the architecture of microprocessors. For example, the Intel 80486 microprocessor has an 8K memory cache, and the Pentium has a 16K cache. Such internal caches are often called level 1 (LI) caches.

Modem PCs also come with external cache memory, called level 2 (L2) caches, which are built into the motherboard outside the CPU. Although L2 caches are composed of SRAM, they are much larger in size than LI caches. Another type of cache, called level 3 (L3).

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 4

When a program is being executed and the CPU wants to read data or instructions, the following steps are performed.

  • The CPU first checks whether the data or instruction is , available in the cache memory.
  • If it is not present there, the CPU reads the data or instructions from the main memory into the processor registers and also copies it into the cache memory.
  • When the same piece of data/instruction is needed again, the CPU reads it from-the cache memory instead of the main memory.

Question 8.
Discuss about Secondary Memories in detail.
Answer:
When the computer is switched off, anything stored in the RAM is lost. To avoid this situation, magnetic disks are used to store data permanently. The data, on these disks, won’t be affected when we turn off our computer.

a) Floppy Disk:
A floppy disk is a reusable data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (“floppy”) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. Also called a “diskette,” the floppy is a flexible circle of magnetic material similar to magnetic tape, except that both sides are used. The read/write head contacts the surface through an opening in the plastic shell or envelope. Floppies rotate at 300 RPM, which is from 10 to 30 times slower than a hard disk. Floppy disks basically come in three sizes, they are 8 inches, 5 ¼ inch, and 3 ½ inch.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 5

b) Hard Disk:
A hard disk, is also a permanent storage, where we can store lot of information. Capacity of a hard disk is measured in Megabytes (MB), Gigabytes(GB) or Terabytes(TB) and they come in various different sizes. Usually every computer now a days comes with hard disk.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 6

The information in hard disk is stored in circular magnetic disks called plates, in the form of program files and data files.

c) CD-ROM (Compact Disk – Read Only Memory):
CD-ROM is also one of the commonly used secondary storage device. The main advantage of CD-ROM is, they can store large volumes of data i.e., 700 MB to 1.4 GB and also they are cheaper and easy to handle. It is made up of small plastic disk, coated with aluminum or silver for magnetization. A layer or transparent plastic is further deposited on the disk. The data is recorded in spiral tracks and the data once recorded cannot be deleted or rewritten, but can be read any number of times.

In this technology, a high power laser beam is used to record data by burning tiny pits in the surface of the hard plastic disk. To read the data, a low power laser beam is used to scan the disk surface. The data are stored in binary digits. When the laser beam reflects from the smooth surface of the disk it is interpreted as a 1 bit and when the beam enters the tiny pits it is interpreted as a 0 bit.

Advantages:

  • High Storage Capacity
  • Easy to use in multimedia applications.
  • Handled easily.
  • Can read/Rewrite using CD-RW’s

Disadvantages:

  • CD Writing can be done carefully
  • Should be kept free from dust and heat.

d) Magnetic Tape:
Magnetic tape is the oldest form of secondary storage device. It is one of the popular storage medium for storing large amount of sequential data. It is also used as a backup storage for data stored on on-line storage devices.

The magnetic tape medium is a plastic ribbon usually 1/2 inch or 1/4 inch wide and 50 to 2400 feet long. It is coated with a magnetizable recording material such as iron-oxide or chromium dioxide. Data are recorded on the tape in the form of ^ tiny invisible magnetized and non-magnetized spots on the coated surface of the tape.

Advantages:

    • Non-volatile Memory
    • Voluminous data can be stored.

Disadvantages:

  • Only sequential data processing
  • Complex mechanism required.
  • After few days the data can be mounted to tape, we need to recall the data to store it into hard disk as and when required.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 3 7

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 2

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 2

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 2

Question 1.
Define Computer? Explain different types of Computer
Answer:
Computer is an Electronic Device, Which stores data, process it and gives the result consistently, accurately at very high speed according to our instruction. The word computer is derived from the word “Compute”. It means perform or calculate. That’s way, the computer is also called as calculating device. The computers can be broadly classified into three types namely a) Analog Computers, b) Digital Computers, and c) Hybrid computers.

a) Anglos Computers: The analog computer operate by measuring instead of counting. The analog computer works on the supply on continuous electrical signals. The display is also continuous and its output is in the form of graphs.

In Analog Computer, the input data is a continuously changing electrical or non-electrical information. Computations are carried out with physical quantities such as Voltage, Length, Current, Temperature etc. The device measuring such quantities are called analog devices. The advantage of analog computer is that all calculation take place in parallel and hence it is very fast. It is used for engineering and scientific application. But their accuracy is poor as compared to digital computer.

Characteristics

  • It operates by measuring
  • It requires by measuring.
  • It function on continuously varying quantity
  • The output is usually represented in the form of graph.
  • The calculations are first converted into equations and later converted into electrical signals.
  • The accuracy of the output is poor
  • It has limited memory space
  • It is not versatile i.e. it has limited applications
  • Speed is very low
  • These computers are-not suitable for business and industry.
  • Examples, Electronic weighing scale, patients heart beat, blood pressure, temperature.

b) Digital Computers: As the name implies, the digital computer with quantities represented as digits. In digital computer, both numeric and non-numeric informations are represented as string of digits.

In Digital Computer, the input data is discrete in nature. It is represented by binary notation in the form of 0’s and l’s. Digital computers are much faster than analog computers and are more accurate. Digital computers are largely used for business and scientific applications.

The basic operation performed by a digital computer is addition. Hence, the other operations such as multiplication, division, subtraction and exponentiation are first changed into “Addition and then compute”.

Characteristics:-

  • It operates by Counting
  • It functions on discrete numbers
  • The calculations are converted into binary numbers
  • The output is represented in the form of discrete values.
  • Its accuracy is good
  • It has large memory space
  • It is versatile in nature
  • It is suitable for a number of applications
  • Its Processing speed is high
  • It is highly suitable for business applications.

c) Hybrid Computers: The Hybrid Computers combines the features of both the analog and digital computers. These are used for special analytical applications. Weather-monitoring systems and devices used in Intensive Care Units (ICU) of the hospitals are examples of hybrid computers.

Further more, computers are classified depending on the application as: Special Purpose Computers and General Purpose Computers.

As the name implies the special purpose computers are designed to perform a specific task or a special application.’ The computers used in mining or mineral exploration or those used in ships or aircrafts fall under this category. It does not possess unnecessary options and thus costs less.

The general purpose computers are designed to cater to a wide variety of users or in other words it is capable of meeting the needs of different users. It is capable of storing different programs and performs a variety of operations.

Question 2.
Write about Classification of Computers?
Answer:
Earlier, Computers are also classified based on the sizes, they are a) Micro Computers, b) Mini Computers, c) Mainframe Computers and d) Super Computers.

a) Micro Computers: Microcomputers, commonly known as PCs. There are very small and cheap. The first microcomputer was designed by IBM in 1981 and was named IBM PC. Later on, many computer hardware companies copied this design and termed their microcomputers as IBM-PC compatible.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 2 1

Another type of popular PC is designed by Apple. PCs designed by IBM and other PC-compatible computers have a different architecture from that of Apple computers. Moreover, PCs and PC-compatible computers commonly use the Windows Operating system (MacOS). However IBM and IBM compatible PCs are more popular than their Apple counterparts.

Advantages:

  • They are small and portable
  • They are relatively inexpensive
  • They work as soon as they are switched on.
  • They do not occupy much space.
  • The do not consume much power.

Disadvantages:

  • They are relatively slow.
  • Its storage capacity is low.

b) Mini Computers: Mini computer are larger than the micro computers and are more powerful in terms of processing power. Mini computers are mainly multiprocessor systems where many users simultaneously work on the system.

Mini computer possess greater storage capacity and larger memories as compared to microcomputer. These are even capable of handling more input-output device. Their word length is 32 bits. Most minicomputer use Motorola 68030 or 68040 CPU. The processing speed lies in the range 10 to 30 MIPS, memory (RAM) capacity lies in the range 8 MB to 256 MB. The hard disk capacity lies in the range 380 to 3 GB, it can support up to 64 or even hundred terminals. It is used for payroll preparation, accounting and scientific computation. High performance workstations with graphics input/output capability use minicomputer.

Advantages:

  • They are small and portable
  • They are relatively inexpensive
  • They work as soon as they are switched on.
  • They do not occupy much space.
  • The do not consume much power.

Disadvantages:
1) They are relatively slow.
c) Mainframe Computers: Mainframe computer are larger, faster and more expensive than other general purpose computers. These are used to handle huge volumes of data. Their word length may be 48 to 64 bit memory capacity, the hard disk capacity 1000 MB to 10 GB or more and processing speed 30 to 100MIPS. These computer even possess and work with more than one processor at the same time. Thus one can see these as multi-user, multiprocessor systems. For mainframe computer highly sophisticated operating systems are needed to control and supervise their operations. They are used where large amount of data are to be processed or very complex calculations are to be made and these tasks are beyond the computing capacity of minicomputer. It is used in research organizations, large industries, large business and government organizations, banks and airline reservation where large database is required. Mainframe computer are IBM 4300 series (small to medium size models), IBM 308X series(large models), the latest model IBM 3090 series (IBM 3090/6000 was first installed in 1988), IBM Enterprise system 9000 series, HP 9000 model 870s/400, HP 9000 model 870s/300, etc.

Advantages:

  • They are capable of handling all tasks.
  • They require large room space.
  • Consumption of electricity is very high.
  • Maintenance cost is also very high.

Present days Classification:
Today computers are classified as notebook computers (laptop computers), Personal Digital Assistant (PDA, also known as* palmtop computer), desktop computers (PCs) Workstations, servers, and Super Computers. Laptop or notebook computers are personal portable computers. They are used for word processing and spreadsheet computing while a person is traveling. Their power supply is from batteries. They consume less power. They use hard disks, floppy disks and flat LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Screen. They can be connected to computer networks.

Desktop Computers: The most common type of personal computer is the desktop computer – a PC that is designed to sit on a desk or table. These are the systems you see all around you, in schools, homes, and offices.

Today’s desktop computers are far more powerful than those of just a few years ago, and are used for an amazing array of tasks.

Workstations: A workstation is a specialized, single-user computer that typically has more powerful than a standard desktop PC. These machines are popular among scientists, engineers, and animators who need a system with greater-than- average speed and the power to perform sophisticated tasks. Workstations often have large, high-resolution monitors and accelerated graphics handling capabilities, making them suitable for advanced architectural or engineering design, modeling, animation and video editing.

Servers: Servers are power computers. A number of PCs and terminals are connected to a server through a communicating network. Server has large disk and RAM capacity. A low-end server contains one microprocessor whereas a high-end server may contain more than one microprocessor. Microprocessor within the computer operate in parallel. A person working on a PC connected to server, makes simple computation on the PC.

d) Super Computers: Super computer is the most powerful of all computers. They have a high processing speed. Their processing speed lies in the range of 400 to 10,000 MIPS, word length 64 to 96 bit, Memory capacity 256 MB, Hard disk capacity 1000 MB and more, and machine cycle time 4 to 6 ns. It is specially designed to maximize the number of FLOPS. Their FLOPS rating is usually more than I gigaflops per second. Supercomputers are mainly used for purposes requiring enormous amounts of data to be processed within a very short time, Whether Forecasting, Space Research, Weapons Research, Atomic Research, Design of Aircrafts etc., are some of the applications. The best known super computers are PARAM series (developed in India) CRAY series, CYBER series and FUJITSU series. .

Super computer can perform billions of instructions per second. Some of the today’s super computer have the computing capability equal to that of 40,000 Micro Computer. A Japanese super-computer has calculated the value of Pi (n) to 16 million decimal places.

Advantages:

  • They use several processors working simultaneously.
  • They process at a rapid speed.
  • They have more main memory.
  • They have operations done in parallel, rather than sequentially.

Question 3.
Explain various Computer Generations in detail.
Answer:
The Computer Generation means step-by-step growth in the technology. Originally, the term generation was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. But nowadays, it has been extended to include both the hardware and the software, which together make up an entire computer system.

There are totally five generations of computers till today. Each generation will be discussed in detail. The following table illustrates the Generations of computer hardware:

S.No Generation of Computers Components used Operating speed
1. First Generation Vacuum Tubes Milli Seconds
2. Second Generation Transisters Micro Seconds
3. Third Generation Integrated Circuits (IC) (or) SSI (or) MSI Nano Seconds
4. Fourth Generation Micro Processors (or) LSI (or) VLSI 1 to 10 Nano Seconds
5. Fifth Generation Ultra LSI 1 to 100 Nano Seconds

a) Ist Generation Computers (1942-1955):- The magnetic relays of the very first computer were replaced by vacuum tubes. The computers which were made of these vacuum tubes came to be known as the first generation computers. The ENIAC computer made use of 18,000 vacuum tubes and relays. It was capable of performing 5,000 additions in one second. It was bulky in size and needed heavy air conditioning.

Advantages:

  • Vacuum tubes were the only electronic components available at that time.
  • This technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computers.
  • These computers were the fastest calculating device of their time.
  • These computers could perform computations in milli seconds.

Disadvantages:

  • Very big in Size
  • Occupies large space
  • High heat production
  • High power consumption
  • High cost
  • NO reliability
  • Vulnerable to frequent hardware failure.
  • Limited Commercial use
  • Need Constant Maintenance.

b) IInd Generation Computers (1955-1964): The transistor was invented in 1948 at the Bell laboratories and was capable of performing all the functions of a vacuum tube at a much faster rate. It consumed little power and generated less heat. The computers which were working with transistors came to be known as the second generation computers. These computers were much smaller, consumed less power and generated little heat and were more reliable. These had capability of performing 20,000 to 50,000 additions per second.

Advantages:

  • Small in size
  • Better reliability
  • Computational time is Micro Seconds
  • Less heat generated
  • Better Speed
  • Better Portability
  • Less prone to hardware failure.

Disadvantages:

  • Frequent Maintenance required
  • Need Air-conditioning
  • Manual Assembly of individual components into a functioning unit was required.
  • High Cost
  • Commercial production was difficult.

c) IIIrd Generation Computers (1964-1975): The new techniques of Small Scale Integration (SSI) and Medium Scale Integration(MSI) led to the evolution of Integrated Circuit (IC). As many as few hundred transistors can be housed on a single Integrated Circuit. This chip can be as small as 4 to 8 square centimeters in the area and weights few grams. It consumes very little power and its cost is very low. The computers using the Integrated Circuits came to be known as third generation computers. The first computer came from IBM and is called as IBM 360. These computers were small in size and greater in
capacity and performed as many as ten million additions per second.

Advantages:

  • Small in size
  • More reliability
  • Less heat generated
  • Computational time is Nano Seconds.
  • Less hardware failure.
  • Low Maintenance Cost
  • Easily portable.
  • General purpose computers.
  • Less power required
  • Commercial production was easier and cheaper.

Disadvantages:

  • Need Air conditioning
  • Highly sophisticated Technology required for the manufacture of IC chips.

d) IVth Generation Computers (1975-1989):- The beginning of 1970s saw a totally new face in the computer industry with the introduction of microprocessors. These microprocessors comprised of many LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuits having all elements to process the data. These microprocessors have thousands of transistors in them. The computers making use of these microprocessors are known as fourth generation computers.

Advantages:

  • These computers were much more small in size.
  • Very cheap as compared with previous generation computers.
  • Consumed less power
  • Mainframes and super computers fall in this generation.
  • Having more reliability
  • Having less Hardware failures.
  • They had large and faster primary and secondary storage.
  • These are the general purpose computers.
  • Object oriented languages are supported.

Disadvantages:

  • Highly sophisticated Technology required for the manufacture of LSI chips.

e) Vth Generation Computers (1989-Present):- The fifth generation computers have a new technology called Artificial Intelligence incorporated in them. The computers which were made of these Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI). came to be known as the fifth generation computers. These computers require new architecture, new memory organizations and new programming languages. These will be the computers that can learn and make decisions.

Advantages:

  • The super computers fall under this generation.
  • Portable PC’s also fall under this generation.
  • These computers consumes less power than the predecessors.
  • More user friendly.
  • Supports wide operating system environments,
  • Supports newer and powerful applications.
  • Having much faster and large primary storage capacity.
  • The prices range are affordable and very close to human being.
  • Supports parallel programming.

Question 4.
Describe about Input / Output Devices
Answer:
Input and output devices act as an interface between the user and the computer. A device sends information to a computer system for processing is called as an input device and a device that receives and then reproduces or displays the results of that processing is called an output device. Most devices are either input devices or output devices because they can only accept data input from a user and forward the same to the computer system or receive the output data from the computer. There are some devices which are capable of both accepting input and handling output, these types of devices are called I/O devices (input/output devices). Input-output devices are also called as peripherals.

1. Keyboard: Keyboard is the most common and very popular input device which helps to input data to the computer. The layout of the keyboard is like that of traditional typewriter, although there are some additional keys provided for performing additional functions.

2. Mouse: Mouse is the most popular pointing device. It is a very famous cursor-control device having a small palm size box with a round ball at its base, which senses the movement of the mouse and sends corresponding signals to the CPU when, the mouse buttons are pressed.

Generally, it has two buttons called the left and the right button and a wheel is present between the buttons. A mouse can be used to control the position of the cursor on the screen, but it cannot be used to enter text into the computer.

3. Joystick: Joystick is also a pointing device, which is used to move the cursor position on a monitor screen. It is a stick having a spherical ball at its both lower and upper ends. The lower spherical ball moves in a . socket. The joystick can be moved in all four directions. The function of the joystick is similar to that of a mouse. It is mainly used in Computer Aided Designing (CAD) and playing computer games.

4. Light Pen: Light pen is a pointing device similar to a pen. It is used to select a displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen. It consists of a photocell and an optical system placed in a small tube.

When the tip of a light pen is moved over the monitor screen and the pen button is pressed, its photocell sensing element detects the screen location and sends the corresponding signal to the CPU.

5. Track Ball: Track ball is an input device that is mostly used in notebook or laptop computer, instead of a mouse. This is a ball which is half inserted and by moving fingers on the ball, the pointer can be moved.

Since the whole device is not moved, a track ball requires less space than a mouse. A track ball comes in various shapes like a ball, a button, or a square.

6. Scanner: Scanner is an input device, which works more like a photocopy machine. It is used when some information is available on paper and it is to be transferred to the hard disk of the computer for further manipulation.

Scanner captures images from the source which are then converted into a digital form that can be stored on the disk. These images can be edited before they are printed.

7. Digitizer: Digitizer is an input device which converts analog information into digital form. Digitizer can convert a signal from the television or camera into a series of numbers that could be stored in a computer. They can be used by the computer to create a picture of whatever the camera had been pointed at.

Digitizer is also known as Tablet or Graphics Tablet as it converts graphics and pictorial data into binary inputs. A graphic tablet as digitizer is used for fine works of drawing and image manipulation applications.

8. Microphone: Microphone is an input device to input sound that is then stored in a digital form. The microphone is used for various applications such as adding sound to a multimedia presentation or for mixing music.

9. Optical Character Reader (OCR): OCR is an input device used to read a printed text. OCR scans the text optically, character by character, converts them into a machine readable code, and stores the text on the system memory.

10. Optical Mark Reader (OMR): OMR is a special type of optical scanner used to recognize the type of mark made by pen or pencil. It is used where one out of a few alternatives is to be selected and marked. It is specially used for checking the answer sheets of examinations having multiple choice questions.

Output Devices
A device that can receive data from a computer or another device and create output with that data is called an output device. Examples of various output devices are as:

1. Monitor: A monitor is an output device that is responsible for receiving data from a computer and displaying that information as text or images for users to see.

2. Printer: A printer is an output device that generates, a hard copy of the electronic data stored on a computer or any other device.

3. Projector: Gets data from a computer and displays or projects the same information onto a screen or a wall. A projector cannot directly accept data from a user and send that data to another device.

4. Speakers: Receives sound signal from a computer and then plays that sound signal and thus we hear songs or music or any other audio.

5. Sound Card: The sound card, also known as an audio adapter is the .expansion card or integrated circuit to receive and produce sound. The sound cards operate with the help of a software application and a device driver.

Microphones are the input device that receives the audio signals, and speakers or headphones are the output devices to send audio data.

6. Video Card: A video card is also an expansion card that is attached to the motherboard. It processes the images and video and enhances their display quality.

Most computers have basic video and graphics capabilities, but a video card is required for getting faster and more detailed graphics.

7. Braille Reader: A Braille Reader is an electronic device that allows a blind person to read the text displayed on the monitor screen.

The computer sends a text to the Braille Reader, where it translated into Braille format and displayed by raising rounded pins through a flat surface.

8. GPS (Global Positioning System): Global Positioning System or GPS is a network of satellites to know the exact location of an object on earth. The GPS is composed of a sender and a receiver computer. The GPS comprises 24 satellites, expanded in space about 12000 miles above the earth’s surface.

The GPS and satellite interact using microwave signals to give information regarding location, vehicle speed, etc. GPS is nowadays used in smartphones, vehicles, and many other tracking devices.

Both Input / Output Devices
An input/output device is capable of receiving data from users or another device and also sending data to other devices or computers. That means devices which can be used as both input device and output device are called Input / Output (I/O) devices. Some examples of input/output devices are:

1. USB drive: Also known as a pen drive or flash stick works as both an input device to the computer and as an output device. USB drives receive or save data from a computer as an input and it can also send data to a computer or another device.

2. Modems: It is used to transmit and receive data from one computer to another computer or other devices using telephone lines

3. CD-RW drives and DVD-RW drives: Receives data from a computer as input to copy onto and save into writable CD or DVD. We also use CDs or DVDs to transfer data to a computer.

4. Touch Screen: Touch screen is both an input and output device. By touching the screen input is provided and is a screen, it is used as an output device.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1

Question 1.
Define Computer. Explain the characteristics of Computer.
Answer:
The word compute is derived from the Latin wore ‘computare’, was meaning “arithmetic, accounting”. A computer is an electronic device that accepts data from the user, processes it, produces results, displays them to the users, and stores the results for future usage.

Definition
“A computer is a programmable electronic machine designed to take input, perform prescribed arithmetic and logical operations at fast speeds, and provide the output of these operations.”

Characteristics:
1. Speed: Speed is one of the major characteristics of the computer system. A computer works so fast that it can process any task and provide the output in fractions of seconds. A powerful computer can handle trillions of instructions per second which is really incredible.

With its incredible speed, computers can reduce the amount of time to perform any digital task. The speed of a computer is measured in microseconds and nanoseconds.

2. Accuracy: Computers not only provide incredible speed, instead, they are also capable of consistently working with accuracy. The degree of accuracy in computers is very high; computers can perform calculations at almost 100% accuracy. Errors may occur in a computer system, but only because of wrong human input or inaccurate data.

3. Diligence: Unlike a human, the computer doesn’t get tired or lacks its concentration. Due to this characteristic, it overpowers human being in most of the regular tasks. It can work for hours without any fault. This means that if millions of calculations are to be done, a computer will perform every calculation and provide all the results with the same accuracy.

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1 1

4. Versatility: Versatility is one of the most wonderful features of computers. This means that the computer has the ability to perform completely different kinds of works with the same accuracy and efficiency at the same time. It is not just a calculating machine anymore.

5. Reliability: The results obtained by the computer are very reliable. But this is true only when the data given to the computer or program is correct and reliable.

6. Consistency: The computer is so consistent that it can perform trillions of processes without errors for several hours. This means that we can use a computer 24 hours a day or 365 days a year continuously. Furthermore, it provides consistent results for the same set of data, that is, if it is given the same set of data multiple times, it will give the same result each time.

7. Memory: A computer has a built-in memory, where it can store instant data immediately. Here, we are referring to random access memory (primary memory) that holds data as long as the computer is connected-to a power source. Data is erased from memory after shutting down the computer. In addition, the computer includes ROM (read-only memory), the cache memory of different levels, virtual memory, etc., thereby speeding performance.

8. Storage Capacity: Computers can store vast amounts of data. Due to their incredible speed, computers can quickly retrieve data from storage devices. The storage capacity of the computer is commonly measured in Mega-Byte (MB), Giga¬Bytes (GB), Tera-Bytes (TB), and Peta-bytes (PB).

9. Remembrance Power: The computer has the power to store any data or information for as long as we like. Data can ‘ also be recalled easily if needed. It is our choice to decide how much data we want to store on die computer and when to recall or erase these data.

10. Automation: Computers can also be used to automate routine tasks with the help of a task scheduler such as launching a specific application or software, sending an email, scanning for viruses, and many other maintenance tasks. Besides, computers can also be programmed to perform many complex tasks.

Question 2.
Define Computer? What are the Uses/Applications of Computers.
Answer:
Computer is an Electronic Device, Which stores data, process it and gives the result consistently, accurately at very high speed according to our instruction. The word computer is derived from the word “Compute”. It means perform or calculate. That’s way; the computer is also called as calculating device.

Applications of Computers:
Computers have proliferated into various areas of our lives. For a user, computer is a tool that provides the desired information, whenever needed. You may use computer to get information about the reservation of tickets (railways, airplanes and cinema halls), books in a library, medical history of a person, a place in a map, or the dictionary meaning of a word. The information may be presented to you in the form of text, images, video clips, etc.

The Figure shows some of the applications of computer. Some of the application areas of the computer are listed below

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1 2

Education: Computers are extensively used, as a tool and as an aid, for imparting education. Educators use computers to prepare notes and presentations of their lectures, Computers are used to develop computer-based training packages, to provide, distance education using the e-learning software, and to conduct online examinations. Researchers use computers to get easy access to conference and journal details and to get global access to the research material.

Entertainment: Computers have had a major impact on the entertainment industry. The user can download and view movies, play games, chat, book tickets for cinema halls, use multimedia for making movies, incorporate visual and sound effects using computers, etc. The users can also listen to music, download and share music, create music using computers, etc.

Sports: A computer can be used to watch a game, view the scores, improve the game, play games (like chess, etc.) and create games. They are also used for the purposes of training players.

Advertising: Computer rs a powerful advertising media. Advertisement can be displayed on different websites, electronic-mails can be sent and reviews of a product by different customers can be posted. Computers are also used to create an advertisement using the visual and the sound effects. For the advertisers, computer is a medium via which the advertisements can be viewed globally. Web advertising has become a significant factor in the marketing plans of almost all companies. In fact, the business model of Google is mainly dependent on web advertising for generating revenues.

Medicine: Medical researchers and practitioners use computers to access information about the advances in medical research or to take opinion of doctors globally. The medical history of patients is stored in the computers. Computers are also an integral part of various kinds of sophisticated medical equipment’s like ultrasound machine, CAT scan machine, MRI scan machine, etc. Computers also provide assistance to the’ medical surgeons during critical surgery operations like. laparoscopic operations, etc.

Science and Engineering: Scientists and engineers use computers for performing complex scientific calculations, for designing and making drawings (CAD/CAM applications) and also for simulating and testing the designs. Computers are used for storing the complex data, performing complex calculations and for visualizing 3-dimensional objects. Complex scientific applications like the launch of the rockets, space exploration, etc., are not possible without the computers.

Government: The government uses computers to manage its own operations and also for e-governance. The websites of the different government departments provide information to the users. Computers are used for the filing of income tax return, paying taxes, online submission of water and electricity bills, for the access of land record details, etc. The police department uses computers to search for criminals using fingerprint matching, etc.

Home: Computers have now become an integral part of home equipment. At home, people use computers to play games, to maintain the home accounts, for communicating with friends and relatives via Internet, for paying bills, for education and learning, etc. Microprocessors are embedded in house hold utilities like, washing machines, TVs, food processors, home theatres, security devices, etc.

In addition to the applications of the computers discussed above, computers have also proliferated into areas like banks, investments, stock trading, accounting, ticket reservation, military operations, meteorological predictions, social networking, business organizations, police department, video conferencing, book publishing, web newspapers, and information sharing and so on.

Question 3.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Computers.
Answer:
Computer has making human life faster because of its incredible speed, Accuracy and storage, with which human can save anything and search it out easily when needed. We can say computer a versatile machine because it is very flexible in performing their jobs, but Computers have several important advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages
1. Multitasking: Multitasking is one of the major advantage of computer. Person can perform multiple task, multiple operation, calculate numerical problems within few seconds. Computer can perform trillion of instructions per second.

2. Speed: Now computer is not just a calculating device. Now a day’s computer has very important role in human life. One of the main advantages of computer is its incredible speed, which helps human to complete their task in few seconds. All the operations can be performed very fast just because of its speed elsewise it takes a long time to perform the task.

3. Cost/ Stores huge amount of data: It is a low cost solution. Person can save huge data within a low budget. Centralized database of storing information is the major advantage that can reduce cost.

4. Accuracy: One of the root advantages of computer is that can perform not only calculations but also with accuracy.

5. Data Security: Protecting digital data is known as data security. Computer provides security from destructive forces and from unwanted action from unauthorized users like cyber-attack or access attack.

6. Stores Huge Amount of Data: Data storing capabilities of computers these days are “HUGE” as compared to previous years. They can save or store any volume of data or instruction given to them permanently.

Users can recall the data or instructions or information given to them anytime & any place. The Storing capability of computer is measured in MB (Mega-Bytes), GB (Giga-Bytes), TB (Tera-Bytes).

7. Research: In research computer are used as they can solve tedious mathematical and logical calculations with high speed and amazing accuracy. The scientist prefers the use of computer in their experiments because of their usefulness. The results of experiments can be stored in a computer hard disk permanently and can be recalled any time required. With the use of a computer the speed of research increases, therefore, computers are made an integral part of research and development

Disadvantages
1. Unemployment: Different tasks are performed automatically by using computers. It reduces the need of people and increases unemployment in society.

2. Wastage of Time And Energy: Many people use computers without positive purpose. They play games and chat for a long period of time. It causes wastage of time and energy. Young generation is now spending more time on the social media websites like Facebook, Twitter etc or texting their friends all night through smartphones which is bad for both studies and their health. And it also has adverse effects on the social life.

3. Data Security: The data stored on a computer can be accessed by unauthorized persons through networks. It has created serious problems for the data security.

4. Computer Crimes: People use the computer for negative activities. They hack the credit card numbers of the people and misuse them or they can steal important data from big organizations.

5. Privacy Violation: The computers are used to store personal data of the people. The privacy of a person can be violated if the personal and confidential records are not protected properly.

6. Health Risks: The improper and prolonged use of computer can results in injuries or disorders of hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks and back. The users can avoid health risks by using the computer in proper position. They must also take regular breaks while using the computer for longer period of time. It is recommended to take a couple of minutes break after 30 minutes of computer usage.

7. Impact on Environment: The computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are polluting the environment. The wasted parts of computer can release dangerous toxic materials. Green computer is a method to reduce the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer. It includes recycling and regulating manufacturing processes. The used computers must be donated or disposed off properly.

Question 4.
How Computers are useful for Society and Business? Explain.
Answer:
Computers useful to Society:
Computers play a great role in the society. Whether at home, in school, at the mall or in the office, computers significantly help in the accomplishment of various tasks. Be it at work or at play, computers have undeniably been utilized to perform general or specific activities that enable life to be more convenient and worry-free.

1. Computers in Business: In the field of business, computers are very useful. They are used in keeping records of daily sales and profits. Computers are also used to prepare materials to promote the products of the business establishments.

2. Computers in Engineering: Engineers use computers to create the design of a complex object using a computer program for Computer-Aided Drafting.

3. Computers in the Government: Computers are used to keep records of the people that the government serves. Several government agencies use computers to facilitate the task they are required to give to the people.

4. Computers at Home: Computers are used at home for recreational purposes. You can listen to music, watch movies and play games. Children use their computers at home to do their schoolwork. Parents use computers to assist them in doing their daily tasks. If your computer at home has internet access, then you can explore the amazing features of the Internet in the comfort of your home.

5. Computers in Manufacturing: Computers are used in manufacturing to manipulate machine that perform dangerous tasks or tasks that are repeatedly done.

6. Computers in School: Computer Education is one subject taught in schools today. Teachers use computers in classroom instruction, in computing grades and in preparing visual aids. Students use computers to study various computer applications. Libraries are connected to the Internet and students access the internet to do research.

7. Computers in Science: Computers are used in science to stimulate experiments, which are dangerous to perform in real life. Computers are also used to record data and information derived from experiments.

Computers useful to Business:
1. Communication: Communication is key when gaining and maintaining clients and other important contacts. Computers give businesses access to email, instant messaging and custom customer contact systems. Computerized phone systems allow for automated support during off hours and a virtual operator can quickly direct callers to the correct department for faster support.

2. Marketing: Computers allow businesses to create websites, stunning ads and complete marketing campaigns. Marketing videos can be edited and custom ads created in-house with the use of specialized software, businesses can completely develop and manage websites with their own servers or connect remotely to a third-party business to upload their latest content such as articles, product images and blog posts.

3. Accounting: Accounting without computers presents a high risk for’ human error. Accounting software allows businesses to simply input their financial data and instantly see gains and losses. All necessary tax reports are available the moment the data is entered. Using computers for invoicing, managing expenses and calculating payroll is vital for ensuring financial data is as accurate as possible.

4. Storage: Instead of filing cabinets, businesses are able to store millions of files using computers and servers. Data can be stored centrally for easy access from multiple computers or stored locally for individual use. Computerized storage saves space and provides a far more efficient organization strategy. With encryption, passwords and replace keys, data remains secure.

5. Documents and Reports: Most businesses have some sort of productivity software which typically includes a word processor and spreadsheet application. These two programs allow businesses to create reports, memos, tutorials and even colorful ads for company events. Spreadsheet applications give businesses the chance to organize, manage and calculate both numeric and alphabetic data. With charts and graphs, reporting becomes visual instead of text-based.

6. Research: From learning more about the competition to’ discovering what customers really want, research isn’t as difficult as it once was, thanks to computers. Search engines, forums, social networks and industry specific websites provide businesses with a wealth of information and research data.

Question 5.
Define Computer? Explain in detail Logical Organization of Digital Computer with neat diagram.
Answer:
Computer is an electronic device which stores data, processes it, and gives the result consistently, accurately at very high speed according to our instruction. The Word computer is derived from .the word “Compute”. It means perform or calculate. So a Powerful computer can handle 3 to 4 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS).

Block Diagram of Digital Computer

Basics of Computers Long Answer Type Questions Part 1 3

Input Unit: It is used to send data or programs into computer. There are several kinds of input units are available, they are Keyboard, Light Pen, Joystick, Mouse, etc.

CPU: CPU Stands for Central Processing Unit. This is the main and most important part of the computer it is made up of three units. They are a) Memory Unit, b) CU, and c) ALU.

a) Memory Unit: The function of the memory unit is to store data or programs or information in the form of “ON” and “OFF” States. Because computer is an electronic device which identifies either “ON” and “OFF” states. That’s why, all the information or data or programs will be stored inside the computer in the form of “ON” and “OFF” states.

b) CU: CU stands for Control Unit. This unit to control the overall units either internally (i.e. memory and ALU) and externally (i.e. Input-Output units) connected to computer.

c) ALU: ALU stands for Arithmetic Logical Unit. It will perform the arithmetic and logical operations.

Output Unit: This unit is used to take the final results. There are two kinds of output Units. They are a) Softcopy Devices, Ex: Monitor and b) Hardcopy Device, Ex: Printer, Plotter.

Softcopy devices are used to prepare the softcopies (monitor output). Prepared softcopy is used for temporary reference and it will save the stationery and printing cost Whereas the hard copy devices are used to prepare the hardcopies (Paper Output). Prepared hardcopy is used for further reference and it will waste the stationary and printing cost for , unnecessary output is taken.

Secondary Storage Devices: This unit is used to store large amount of data permanently. There are several kinds of secondary storage devices, they are Magnetic Tapes, Magnetic disks, CDs etc.

Peripheral Devices: Whose devices are connected CPU externally then those devices are called Peripheral devices.
OR
Input and output units are called as peripherals devices.